Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 87–96 | Cite as

Studies on the relaxor behavior of sol-gel derived Ba(Zr x Ti1− x )O3 (0.30≤x≤0.70) thin films

  • A. Dixit
  • S. B. Majumder
  • R. S. Katiyar
  • A. S. Bhalla


We have studied the relaxor behavior of sol-gel derived Ba(Zr x Ti1− x )O3 (0.30≤ x≤0.70) thin films. The plausible mechanism of the relaxor behavior has been analyzed from the dielectric data and micro-Raman spectra. Substitution of Zr+4 for Ti+4 in BaTiO3 lattice reduces its long-range polarization order yielding a diffused paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition. The solid solution system is visualized as a mixture of Ti+4 rich polar region and Zr+4 rich regions and with the increase in Zr contents the volume fraction of the polar regions are progressively reduced. At about 25.0 at% Zr contents the polar regions exhibit typical relaxor behavior. The degree of relaxation increases with Zr content and maximizes at 40.0 at% Zr doped film. The frequency dependence of the polar regions follows Vogel-Fulcher relation with a characteristic cooperative freezing at freezing temperature (Tf). Below Tf, a long range polarization ordering was ascertained from the polarization hysteresis measurement.


Polar Region Freezing Temperature Relaxor Behavior Diffuse Phase Transition Dielectric Anomaly 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Dixit
    • 1
  • S. B. Majumder
    • 1
  • R. S. Katiyar
    • 1
  • A. S. Bhalla
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Puerto RicoSan Juan
  2. 2.Materials Research LaboratoryPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park

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