‘Green’ composites Part 2: Characterization of flax yarn and glutaraldehyde/poly(vinyl alcohol) modified soy protein concentrate composites
In the present research, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was modified using glutaraldehyde (GA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The modified resin allowed to process soy protein polymer without any plasticizer. The modified resin also showed increased tensile properties, improved thermal stability and reduced moisture resistance as compared to SPC resin. Besides the tensile and thermal properties, modified SPC resin was also characterized for its dynamic mechanical properties.
Unidirectional composites were fabricated using modified SPC and flax yarn. Composite specimens, approximately 1 mm thick, were prepared in both longitudinal and transverse directions. The composite specimens were characterized for their tensile and flexural properties. The fracture surface of the composite was also analyzed in both longitudinal and transverse directions. These composite specimens exhibited a fracture stress of 126 MPa and 2.24 GPa, respectively, in the longitudinal directions. The composite properties were also predicted using the rule of mixture in longitudinal direction. It was observed that the experimental values are lower than the predicted values for a variety of reasons.
KeywordsTransverse Direction Fracture Stress Longitudinal Direction Polyvinyl Alcohol Vinyl Alcohol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.S. CHABBA and A. N. NETRAVALI, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on “Green” Composites, (Japan, 2002) p. 1.Google Scholar
- 2.S. CHABBA and A. N. NETRAVALI, in Proceedings of the MACRO-2002, (India, 2002).Google Scholar
- 4.Idem., Ind. Crops Prod. (2004) In press.Google Scholar
- 5.S. NAM and A. N. NETRAVALI, in Proceedings of the ICCE-9, (San Diego, California, 2002) p. 551.Google Scholar
- 6.A. N. NETRAVALI, in Advanced Natural Fibers, Plastics and Composites—Recent Advances, edited by F. Wallenberger and N. Weston (Kluwer Academic Publishers, NY, 2003) in press.Google Scholar
- 7.S. NAM, Environment friendly ‘green’ biodegradable composites using ramie fibers and soy protein concentrate (SPC) polymer, M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Jan. 2002.Google Scholar
- 8.C. M. VAZ, J. F. MANO, M. FOSSEN, R. F. V. TUIL, L. A. D. GRAAF, R. L. REIS and A. M. CUNHA, J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B 41 (2002) 33.Google Scholar
- 9.G. I. WILLIAMS and R. P. WOOL, Appl. Comp. Mater. 7 (2000) 421.Google Scholar
- 10.S. CHABBA and A. N. NETRAVALI, J. Mater. Sci. (2003). Submitted.Google Scholar
- 11.S. CHABBA, Characterization of environment friendly ‘green’ composites with modified soy protein concentrate and flax yarn and fabric, M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Aug. 2003.Google Scholar
- 12.J. W. S. HEARLE, P. GROSBERG and S. BACKER, in “Structural Mechanics of Fibers, Yarns and Fabrics,” (Wiley-Interscience, NY, 1969) Vol. 1.Google Scholar
- 14.P. R. LORD, in “The Economics, Science and Technology of Yarn Production,” (North Carolina State University, NC, 1979).Google Scholar
- 16.S. WANG, H. J. SUE and J. JANE, J. Macromol. Sci.- Pure Appl. Chem. A 33 (1996) 557.Google Scholar
- 17.J. ZHANG, P. MUNGARA and J. JANE, Polym. Preprints 39 (1998).Google Scholar
- 18.Idem., Polymer 42 (2001) 2569.Google Scholar
- 19.D. HULL and T. W. CLYNE, in “An Introduction to Composite Materials,” (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001).Google Scholar