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Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 417–431 | Cite as

Diversity of Tiphiidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in the fragmented Brazilian semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest

  • Cíntia Eleonora Lopes Justino
  • Eduardo Fernando dos Santos
  • Fernando Barbosa Noll
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important areas of biodiversity in the world, but it has been largely replaced with agropastoral areas and at the present only 12.5 % of the original cover remains. Despite the ecological importance of insects, few studies have been used in conservation approaches for the Atlantic Forest, mainly due to a great taxonomic impediment. A group quite ecologically important but deeply neglected includes parasitoid wasps that control a great number of invertebrates, like tiphiid wasps that are parasitoids of underground coleopteran larvae. The present study aimed to estimate Tiphiidae species richness and diversity in 15 patches of a highly fragmented Atlantic Forest region, using factors that drive the diversity pool from a metacommunity, such as immigration and speciation probabilities. The parameters were estimated using the Neutral Biodiversity Theory, which is based on the total ecological equivalence of species at the same trophic level. Diversity values were molded to the area size, the immigration probabilities, and/or the speciation probability. Eight genera and 460 individuals of Thynninae, Myzininae and Tiphiinae were collected. Variation in species richness, estimated by both rarefaction and first-order jackknife methods, was explained by patch size and by immigration and speciation probabilities. These variables also explained the variation in Shannon diversity and species evenness. Variations in species richness and diversity of Tiphiidae are strongly associated with neutral processes, but they are also influenced by forest fragmentation and intensive agricultural activities.

Keywords

Parasitoids wasps Tropical forest Agricultural landscape Deforestation Neutral model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Laboratório de Aculeata Sistemática e Comportamento team, who helped us with the collection in the field, to Dr. Maria Stela Maioli Castilho Noll for a critical review of the manuscript and Dr. John Wenzel for reading the final version of this manuscript. The São Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp) supported this study (Process Numbers: 2004/04820-3, 2008/09145-3 and 2009/16580-0).

Supplementary material

10841_2016_9875_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 25 kb)
10841_2016_9875_MOESM2_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 32 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cíntia Eleonora Lopes Justino
    • 1
  • Eduardo Fernando dos Santos
    • 1
  • Fernando Barbosa Noll
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Zoologia e Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências ExatasUniversidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”São José do Rio PretoBrazil

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