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Table 5 Butterfly inventory of Bifeng Valley, species biogeography and their relative abundance

From: A butterfly hotspot in western China, its environmental threats and conservation

Species Biogeographic region Number of individuals Relative abundance (%)
I. Papilionidae
 1. Byasa alcinous (Klug) W 7 0.274
 2. B. impediens (Rothschild) O 20 0.782
 3. B. polyeuctes (Doubleday) O 4 0.156
 4. B. plutonius (Oberthür) O 2 0.078
 5. Chilasa clytia (Linnaeus) O 2 0.078
 6. C. epycides (Hewitson) O 7 0.274
 7. Graphium cloanthus (Westwood) O 8 0.313
 8. Meandrusa scrion (Leech) O 3 0.117
 9. Papilio memnon Linnaeus O 2 0.078
 10. P. alcmenor Felder O 39 1.526
 11. P. bianor Cramer W 321 12.559
 12. P. bootes Westwood O 4 0.156
 13. P. helenus Linnaeus O 3 0.117
 14. P. machaon Linnaeus P 16 0.626
 15. P. nephelus Boisduval O 2 0.078
 16. P. paris Linnaeus O 112 4.382
 17. P. polyctor Boisduval O 1 0.039
 18. P. polytes Linnaeus W 14 0.548
 19. P. protenor Cramer W 60 2.347
 20. P. xuthus Linnaeus W 62 2.426
 21. Pazala tamerlana (Oberthür) P 2 0.078
 22. P. mandarina (Oberthür) O 33 1.291
 23. Troides aeacus (Felder & Felder) O 6 0.235
II. Parnassiidae
 24. Parnassius glacialis Butler W 3 0.117
III. Pieridae
 25. Aporia hippia (Bremer) P 28 1.095
 26. A. largeteaui (Oberthür) W 9 0.352
 27. A. oberthueri (Leech) O 1 0.039
 28. Anthocharis scolymus Butler P 1 0.039
 29. A. cardamines (Linnaeus) P 2 0.078
 30. Colias erate (Esper) W 1 0.039
 31. C. fieldii (Ménétriès) W 60 2.347
 32. Dercas verhuelli (van der Hoeven) O 31 1.213
 33. D. lycorias (Doubleday) O 1 0.039
 34. D. nina Mell O 2 0.078
 35. Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) W 125 4.890
 36. E. blanda (Boisduval) O 2 0.078
 37. Gonepteryx mahaguru Gistel W 38 1.487
 38. Leptidea morsei Fenton P 2 0.078
 39. Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) W 240 9.390
 40. P. melete Ménétriès W 2 0.078
 41. P. extensa Poujade O 1 0.039
IV. Danaidae
 42. Parantica sita (Kollar) W 5 0.196
V. Amathusiidae
 43. Faunis aepope (Leech) O 26 1.017
 44. Stichophthalma Howqua (Westwood) O 15 0.587
VI. Satyridae
 45. Callerebia suroia Tytler O 5 0.196
 46. Chonala episcopalism (Oberthür) O 1 0.039
 47. Kirinia epaminondes (Staudinger) W 2 0.078
 48. Lethe confusa (Aurivillius) O 4 0.156
 49. L. chandica Moore O 1 0.039
 50. L. violaceopicta (Poujade) O 3 0.117
 51. L. marginalis (Motschulsky) W 10 0.391
 52. L. butleri Leech O 1 0.039
 53. Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus) O 3 0.117
 54. M. gotama Moore W 2 0.078
 55. M. francisca (Stoll) W 4 0.156
 56. Melanargia epimede (Staudinger) P 40 1.565
 57. M. montana Leech P 1 0.039
 58. Minois dryas (Scopoli) P 4 0.156
 59. Neope yama (Moore) O 10 0.391
 60. N. muirheadii (Felder) O 2 0.078
 61. Ninguta schrenkii (Ménétriés) P 6 0.235
 62. Palaeonympha opalina Butler W 6 0.235
 63. Penthema adelma (Felder) W 17 0.665
 64. Rhaphicera dumicola (Oberthür) P 1 0.039
 65. Ypthima motschulskyi (Bremer & Grey) W 4 0.156
 66. Y. zodia Butler O 3 0.117
 67. Y. conjuncta Leech O 1 0.039
 68. Y. megalomma Butler W 2 0.078
 69. Y. sacra Moore O 1 0.039
 70. Y. zyzzomacula Chou & Li O 1 0.039
VII. Nymphalidae
 71. Apatura iris (Linnaeus) P 10 0.391
 72. A. ilia (Denis & Schiffermüller) W 16 0.626
 73. Argynnis paphia (Linnaeus) W 37 1.448
 74. Argyreus hyperbius (Linnaeus) W 31 1.213
 75. Argyronome laodice (Pallas) W 6 0.235
 76. Athyma punctata Leech O 4 0.156
 77. A. recurva Leech O 11 0.430
 78. A. jina Moore O 14 0.548
 79. A. nefte Cramer O 1 0.039
 80. Aglais urticae (Linnaeus) W 2 0.078
 81. Araschnia prosodies (Blanchard) W 77 3.013
 82. A. burejana (Bremer) W 17 0.665
 83. A. dohertyi Moore O 17 0.665
 84. A. doris Leech W 7 0.274
 85. Chitoria fasciola (Leech) O 2 0.078
 86. C. pallas (Leech) O 3 0.117
 87. Calinaga davidis Oberthür O 5 0.196
 88. Childrena childreni (Gray) W 16 0.626
 89. C. zenobia (Leech) W 1 0.039
 90. Damora sagana (Doubleday) W 18 0.704
 91. Dilipa fenestra (Leech) P 4 0.156
 92. Euthalia kardama (Moore) O 28 1.095
 93. E. confucius (Westwood) O 4 0.156
 94. E. thibetana (Poujade) O 5 0.196
 95. Helcyra superba Leech O 3 0.117
 96. Hestina assimilis (Linnaeus) W 10 0.391
 97. H. persimilis Westwood W 4 0.156
 98. Inachis io (Linnaeus) W 1 0.039
 99. Junonia orithya (Linnaeus) W 41 1.604
 100. Kaniska canace (Linnaeus) W 18 0.704
 101. Lelecella limenitoides (Oberthür) P 2 0.078
 102. Limenitis sydyi Lederer W 4 0.156
 103. L. helmanni Lederer W 28 1.095
 104. L. homeyeri Tancré W 1 0.039
 105. L. sulpitia (Cramer) O 3 0.117
 106. Litinga mimica (Poujade) P 1 0.039
 107. Mimathyma schrenckii (Ménétriés) W 5 0.196
 108. Neptis clinia Moore O 2 0.078
 109. N. soma Moore O 7 0.274
 110. N. reducta Fruhstorfer O 3 0.117
 111. N. mahendra Moore O 1 0.039
 112. N. leucoporos Fruhstorfer O 6 0.235
 113. N. sappho (Pallas) W 1 0.039
 114. N. miah Moore O 4 0.156
 115. N. noyala Oberthür O 1 0.039
 116. N. sankara (Kollar) W 8 0.313
 117. Nephargynnis anadyomene (Felder & Felder) W 17 0.665
 118. N. philyra Ménétriés W 3 0.117
 119. N. cartica Moore O 1 0.039
 120. N. ananta Moore O 8 0.313
 121. N. namba Tytler O 1 0.039
 122. N. guia Chou & Wang O 1 0.039
 123. N. armandia (Oberthür) O 2 0.078
 124. N. hesione Leech O 1 0.039
 125. N. beroe Leech O 1 0.039
 126. N. themis Leech W 4 0.156
 127. N. ilos Fruhstorfer W 6 0.235
 128. N. pryeri Butler W 4 0.156
 129. Phaedyma aspasia (Leech) O 1 0.039
 130. Polyura narcaea (Hewitson) W 22 0.861
 131. P. eudamippus (Doubleday) O 10 0.391
 132. P. dolon (Westwood) O 10 0.391
 133. Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus) W 52 2.034
 134. P. c-aureum (Linnaeus) W 1 0.039
 135. Pseudergolis wedah (Kollar) O 19 0.743
 136. Stibochiona nicea (Gray) O 20 0.782
 137. Vanessa indica (Herbst) W 86 3.365
 138. V. cardui (Linnaeus) W 9 0.352
 139. Sasakia funebris (Leech) O 1 0.039
 140. S. charonda (Hewitson) W 3 0.117
 141. Sephisa chandra (Moore) O 1 0.039
 142. Symbrenthia lilaea (Hewitson) O 8 0.313
 143. Timelaea albescens (Oberthür) W 1 0.039
 144. T. maculata (Bremer & Grey) W 1 0.039
VIII. Acraeidae
 145. Acraea issoria (Hübner) O 73 2.856
IX. Libytheidae
 146. Libythea celtis Godart W 42 1.643
X. Riodinidae
 147. Abisara neophron (Hewitson) O 19 0.743
 148. Dodona eugenes Bates O 6 0.235
 149. D. egeon (Westwood) O 7 0.274
 150. Zemeros flegyas (Cramer) O 13 0.509
XI. Lycaenidae
 151. Araragi enthea (Janson) W 2 0.078
 152. Bothrinia nebulosa (Leech) P 40 1.565
 153. Chrysozephyrus morishitai Chou & Zhu O 1 0.039
 154. Cordelia comes (Leech) W 2 0.078
 155. C. minerva (Leech) W 1 0.039
 156. Celastrina oreas (Leech) O 3 0.117
 157. C. hersilia (Leech) O 1 0.039
 158. Chilades lajus (Stoll) O 1 0.039
 159. Favonius cognatus Staudinger W 1 0.039
 160. Heliophorus moorei (Hewitson) O 1 0.039
 161. H. phoenicoparyphus (Holland) O 41 1.604
 162. H. androcles (Westwood) O 3 0.117
 163. Japonica lutea (Hewitson) W 2 0.078
 164. Neozephyrus coruscans (Leech) O 2 0.078
 165. Orthomiella sinensis (Elwes) W 1 0.039
 166. Rapala caerulea (Bremer & Grey) P 1 0.039
 167. Sinthusa chandrana (Moore) O 1 0.039
 168. Spindasis lohit (Horsfield) O 1 0.039
 169. Teratozephyrus zhejiangensis Chou & Tong O 1 0.039
 170. Una usta (Distant) O 2 0.078
XII. Hesperiidae    
 171. Celaenonrrhinsus asperses Leech O 2 0.078
 172. Choaspes benjaminii (Guérin-Méneville) O 2 0.078
 173. Coladenia hoenei Evans W 2 0.078
 174. Daimio tethys (Ménétriés) W 17 0.665
 175. Erynnis montanus (Bremer) W 2 0.078
 176. Lobocla simplex (Leech) O 1 0.039
 177. Ochlodes siva (Moore) O 1 0.039
 178. Parnara ganga Evans W 2 0.078
 179. P. gutatta (Bremer & Grey) W 1 0.039
 180. Potanthus pallidus (Evans) O 4 0.156
 181. P. rectifasciatus (Elwes & Edwards) O 1 0.039
 182. Pseudocoladenia dan (Fabricius) O 2 0.078
 183. Satarupa gopala Moore W 3 0.117
 184. Suastus gremius (Fabricius) O 4 0.156
O: 97; 52.72%;   2,556 100.00
P: 17; 9.24%;    
W: 70; 38.04%    
  1. Species were identified and arranged systematically according to Chou (2000)
  2. O Oriental species, P Palaearctic species, W widespread species