T wave positivity in lead aVR is associated with mortality in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy

  • Yahya Kemal İçen
  • Yurdaer Dönmez
  • Hasan Koca
  • Mehmet Uğurlu
  • Mevlüt Koç



Positive T wave polarity in lead aVR (TPaVR) is associated with a poor prognostic indicator in patients with heart failure reduce ejection fraction (HFrEF). Our aim was to investigate the relationship between positive TPaVR and mortality in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D).


We included retrospectively 224 HFrEF patients with CRT-D in sinus rhythm. Laboratory, electrocardiographic (ECG), and echocardiographic data were recorded. T wave polarity was measured in lead DI, DII, and aVR from surface ECG.


The patients were divided as living and deceased. They followed for 2.5 ± 0.9 years. Thirty-three patients (14.7%) died. Six patients (18.2%) were TPaVR positive before CRT-D and this number increased to 22 (66.6%) after CRT-D in the deceased group. Pulse (p = 0.049), hyperlipidemia (p = 0.022), and NT-proBNP levels were higher in the deceased group (p = 0.001). TPaVR before CRT-D (p < 0.001) and TPaVR after CRT-D (p < 0.001) were significantly positive in the deceased group. Positive TPaVR after CRT-D was the only independent predictor for mortality in binominal logistic regression analysis (OR 1.211, 95% CI 1.105–1.328, p < 0.001).


In CRT-D patients, a positive TPaVR in surface ECG may be a strong mortality indicator.


Cardiac resynchronization Mortality ECG Lead aVR 


Compliance with ethical standards

The Local Ethics Committee of Cukurova University Medical Faculty approved our retrospective study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yahya Kemal İçen
    • 1
  • Yurdaer Dönmez
    • 1
  • Hasan Koca
    • 1
  • Mehmet Uğurlu
    • 1
  • Mevlüt Koç
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Sciences University, Cardiology DepartmentAdana City HospitalAdanaTurkey

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