The Search for Optimal Atrioventricular Interval

Invited Commentary


AV interval optimization impedance cardiography resynchronization therapy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ovsyshcher IE. Toward physiological pacing: Optimization of cardiac hemodynamics by AV delayadjustment. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:861–865.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ausubel K, Klementowicz P, Furman S. Interatrial conduction during cardiac pacing. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 1986;9:1026–1031.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camous JP, Raybound F, Dolisi C, Schenowitz A, Varenne A, Baudouy M. Interatrial conduction inpatients undergoing AV stimulation: Effects of increasing right atrial stimulation rate. PacClin Electrophysiol 1993;16:2082–2086.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wish M, Fletcher RD, Gottdiener JS, Cohen AI. Importance of left atrial timing in the programmingof dual-chamber pacemakers. Am J Cardiol 1987;60(7):566–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chirife R, Tentori MC, Mazzetti H, Dasso D. Automatic beat-to-beat left heart AV normalization: Is It possible? Pac Clin Electrophysiol 2003;26:2103–2110.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pearson AC, Janosik DL, Redd RR, Buckingham TA, Blum RI, Labovitz AJ. Doppler echocardiographicassessment of the effect of varying atrioventricular delay and pacemaker mode on left ventricularfilling. Am Heart J 1988;115(3):611–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ovsyshcher I, Furman S. Impedance cardiography for cardiac output estimation in pacemaker patients. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 1993;16:1412–1422.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doi A, Takagi M, Toda I, Yoshiyama M, Takeuchi K, Yoshikawa J. Acute hemodynamic benefits ofbi-atrial atrioventricular sequential pacing with the optimal atrioventricular delay. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:320–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ovsyshcher IE, Barold SS. Cardiac pacing in patients with marked first-degree AV block. In Ovsyshcher IE, ed. Cardiac arrhythmias and device therapy: Results and perspectives for the new century, Armonk, NY, USA, 2000, Futura Publishing Company Inc., (Chapter 50); 409–417.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barold SS, Ovsyshcher IE. Pacemaker-induced mitral regurgitation. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 2005;28(5):357–360.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crystal E, Ovsyshcher IE. Cardiac output-based versus empirically programmed AV interval—How different are they? Europace 1999;1:121–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ovsyshcher I, Zimlichman R, Bondy C, Katz A, Furman S. Measurement of cardiac output by impedance cardiography in pacemaker patients at rest: Effects of various AV delay. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;21:761–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sparks PB, Mond HG, Vohra JK, Jayaprakash S, Kalman JM. Electrical remodeling of the atria following loss of atrioventricular synchrony: a long-term study in humans. Circulation 1999;100:1894–1900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sparks PB, Mond HG, Vohra JK, Japanis AG, Kalman JM. Electrical remodeling of the atria following loss of atrioventricular synchrony: A long-term study in humans. Circulation 1999;100:1714–1721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Doerr T, Ruhl I, Trenn G. Incidence of atrial rhythm disturbances is a function of AV-delay, not a lower rate limit (Abstract). Heart Rhythm 2005;2(May Suppl.):P6–P92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bax JJ, Ansalone G, Breithardt OA, Derumeaux G, Leclercq C, Schalij MJ, Sogaard P, St John Sutton M, Nihoyannopoulos P. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac resynchronizationtherapy: Ready for routine clinical use? A critical appraisal. J Am Coll Cardiol2004;44:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Auricchio A, Stellbrink C, Block M, Sack S, Vogt J, Bakker P, Klein H, Kramer A, Ding J, Salo R, Tockman B, Pochet T, Spinelli J. Effect of pacing chamber and atrio-ventricular delay onacute systolic function of paced patients with congestive heart failure: the Pacing Therapiesfor Congestive Heart Failure Study Group: the Guidant Congestive Heart Failure Research Group.Circulation 1999;99:2993–3001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tse HF, Yu C, Par E, Lau CP. Impedance cardiography for atrioventricular interval optimization during permanent left ventricular pacing. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 2003;26:189–191.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kindermann M, Fröhlich G, Doerr Th, et al. Optimizing the AV delay in DDD pacemaker patients with high degree AV block: Mitral valve Doppler versus impedance cardiography. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:2453–2462.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scharf C, Li P, Muntwyler J, Chugh A, Oral H, Pelosi F, Morady F, Armstrong WF. Rate-dependent AV delay optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 2005;28:279–284.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Butter C, Stellbrink C, Belalcazar A, Villalta D, Schlegl M, Sinha A, Cuesta F, Reister C. Cardiac resynchronization therapy optimization by finger plethysmography. Heart Rhythm 2004;1(5):568–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sawhney NS, Waggoner AD, Garhwal S, Chawla MK, Osborn J, Faddis MN. Randomized prospective trial of atrioventricular delay programming for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Heart Rhythm 2004;1(5):562–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Padeletti L, Porciani MC, Ritter P, Michelucci A, Colella A, Pieragnoli P, Costoli A, Ciapetti C, Sabini A, Demarchi G, Gillio-Meina L, Gaggini G, Gensini GF. Atrioventricular intervaloptimization in the right atrial appendage and interatrial septumpacing: A comparison between echo and peak endocardial acceleration measurements. PacClin Electrophysiol 2000;23:1618–1622.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ovsyshcher I, Furman S. Importance of an individually programmed atrioventricular delay at rest and on work capacity in patients with dual chamber pacemakers. Pac Clin Electrophysiol 1995;18:751–752.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Braun MU, Schnabel A, Rauwolf T, Schulze MR, Strasser RH. Impedance cardiography as anon-invasive technique for atrioventricular interval optimization in cardiacresynchronization therapy. J Interven Cardiac Electrophysiol 2005;13:223–229.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sogaard P, Egeblad H, Pedersen AK, Kim WY, Kristensen Bent Ø, Hansen PS, Mortensen PT. Sequential versus simultaneous biventricular resynchronization for severe heart failure evaluation by tissue Doppler imaging. Circulation 2002;106:2078–2084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Auricchio A, Ding J, Spinelli JC, Kramer AP, Salo RW, Hoersch W, Kenknight BH, Klein HU.Cardiac resynchronization therapy restores optimal atrioventricular mechanical timing in heartfailure patients with ventricular conduction delay. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1163–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Worley SJ, Gohn DC, Coles JA. Optimize the AV delay at implant before it's too late. Heart Rhythm 2005;2(1S):S77, AB39-1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McKay RG, Spears JR, Aroesty JM, Baim DS, Royal HD, Heller GV, Lincoln W, Salo RW, Braunwald E, Grossman W. Instantaneous measurement of left and right ventricular stroke volume and pressure-volume relationships with an impedance catheter. Circulation 1984;69(4):703–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrophysiology, Faculty of Health SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Soroka University Medical CenterBeer-ShevaIsrael

Personalised recommendations