Journal of Family and Economic Issues

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 64–83 | Cite as

Self-Employed Individuals, Time Use, and Earnings

Original Paper


This paper analyzes the time allocation of self-employed individuals and the impact of housework activities on earnings of self-employed individuals. In contrast to men and women in paid employment time allocation of self-employed individuals was more gendered with men performing more market work. Also differences in daily routine of activities occurred. While descriptive statistics and pooled OLS earnings regressions indicated a negative correlation between time spent on housework activities and earnings, fixed effects earnings regressions only showed a significantly negative impact on monthly earnings of self-employed men. This impact disappeared after controlling for potential endogeneity via instrumental variable estimators.


Self-employment Time use Earnings Gender earnings gap Germany 

JEL Classification

J16 J31 J22 



I would like to thank Claus Schnabel, two anonymous referees, and the editor of this journal for very helpful suggestions. I also appreciate the comments received from participants of a Ph.D. seminar at Nuremberg.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of Labour and Regional EconomicsUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergNurnbergGermany

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