Journal of Electroceramics

, Volume 25, Issue 2–4, pp 198–202 | Cite as

High-rate sputtering of thick PZT thin films for MEMS

  • Harald Jacobsen
  • Klaus Prume
  • Bernhard Wagner
  • Kai Ortner
  • Thomas Jung


Crack and void free polycrystalline Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films in the range of 5 µm to 10 µm have been successfully deposited on silicon substrates using a novel high rate sputtering process. The sputtered PZT layers show a high dielectric constant εr between 1,000 and 1,800 with a moderate dissipation factor tan (δ) = 0,002 − 0,01 measured at f = 1 kHz, a distinct ferroelectric hysteresis loop with a remanent polarisation of 17 µC/cm2 and coercive field strength of 5.4 kV/mm. The piezoelectric coefficients d33,f = 80 pm/V are measured by using a Double Beam Laser Interferometer (DBLI). Based on this deposition process a membrane actuator mainly consisting of a SOI layer and a sputtered PZT thin film was prepared. The deflection of this membrane actuator depending on the driving voltage was measured with a white light interferometer and compared to the results of finite element analysis (FEA). With this approach a transverse piezoelectric coefficient of about e31 = −11.2 C/m2 was calculated, whereas all the other material parameters in the model were lent from PZT-5A.


PZT Sputter deposition Thin film MEMS Actuator 


  1. 1.
    M. Koch, N. Harris et al., A novel micropump design with thick-film piezoelectric actuation. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 49–57 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.C. Jones et al., MOCVD of zirconia and lead zirconate titanate using a novel zirconium precursor. J. Eur. Cer. Soc. 19, 1434 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Muralt et al., Fabrication and characterisation of PZT thin-film vibrations for micromotors. Sens Actuators A 48, 157 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Kueppers et al., PZT thin films for piezoelectric microactuator applications. Sens Actuators A 97–98, 680 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Jacobsen, H.-J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, K. Ortner, Th. Jung, High-rate sputtering of thick PZT layers for MEMS actuators. Proc. 19th MEMS, 214 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Jacobsen, Th Jung, K. Ortner, K.I. Schiffmann, H.-J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, Development of a piezoelectric lead titanate thin film process on silicon substrates by high rate gas flow sputtering. Sens Actuators A 133, 250 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Ortner, D. Koeßler, Th Jung, H. Jacobsen, H.-J. Quenzer, Influence of bias voltage on the structure of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric films prepared by gas flow sputtering. Plasma Process Polymer 4, 134 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Prume, P. Muralt, F. Calame, Th Schmitz-Kempen, S. Tiedke, Piezoelectric thin films: evaluation of electrical and electromechanical characteristics for MEMS devices. IEEE Trans. UFFC. 54, 8 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Maeder, L. Sagalowicz, P. Muralt, Stabilized platinum electrodes for ferroelectric film deposition using Ti, Ta and Zr adhesion layers. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2007 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Baborowski, Microfabrication of piezoelectric MEMS. J. Electroceram 12, 33 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Jacobsen
    • 1
  • Klaus Prume
    • 4
  • Bernhard Wagner
    • 2
  • Kai Ortner
    • 3
  • Thomas Jung
    • 3
  1. 1.Materials Science, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISITItzehoeGermany
  3. 3.Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films ISTBraunschweigGermany
  4. 4.aixACCT Systems GmbHAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations