A series of check experiments showed that ZnO varistors doped with TiO2 of different particle sizes and dispersing states have different densities, porosities and grain morphologies, which relate to their electrical properties tightly. Compared with samples added with TiO2 dopants of others types, the varistors added with nm-TiO2 sol exhibit large density, low porosity, big granular size, low breakdown voltage gradient and small leakage current. Hence nm-TiO2 sol dopant is the best grain growth enhancing additive for optimizing almost all the electrical parameters.
Porosity Dispersing state Electrical properties Morphology Voltage gradient
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