In this paper, we highlight the topological properties of leader neurons whose existence is an experimental fact. Several experimental studies show the existence of leader neurons in population bursts of activity in 2D living neural networks (Eytan and Marom, J Neurosci 26(33):8465–8476, 2006; Eckmann et al., New J Phys 10(015011), 2008). A leader neuron is defined as a neuron which fires at the beginning of a burst (respectively network spike) more often than we expect by chance considering its mean firing rate. This means that leader neurons have some burst triggering power beyond a chance-level statistical effect. In this study, we characterize these leader neuron properties. This naturally leads us to simulate neural 2D networks. To build our simulations, we choose the leaky integrate and fire (lIF) neuron model (Gerstner and Kistler 2002; Cessac, J Math Biol 56(3):311–345, 2008), which allows fast simulations (Izhikevich, IEEE Trans Neural Netw 15(5):1063–1070, 2004; Gerstner and Naud, Science 326:379–380, 2009). The dynamics of our lIF model has got stable leader neurons in the burst population that we simulate. These leader neurons are excitatory neurons and have a low membrane potential firing threshold. Except for these two first properties, the conditions required for a neuron to be a leader neuron are difficult to identify and seem to depend on several parameters involved in the simulations themselves. However, a detailed linear analysis shows a trend of the properties required for a neuron to be a leader neuron. Our main finding is: A leader neuron sends signals to many excitatory neurons as well as to few inhibitory neurons and a leader neuron receives only signals from few other excitatory neurons. Our linear analysis exhibits five essential properties of leader neurons each with different relative importance. This means that considering a given neural network with a fixed mean number of connections per neuron, our analysis gives us a way of predicting which neuron is a good leader neuron and which is not. Our prediction formula correctly assesses leadership for at least ninety percent of neurons.
Simulation Model Neuron Burst Leader Integrate and fire
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I would like to thank Jean-Pierre Eckmann, my PhD advisor at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, for his continuous useful help along this study. This paper could not have been without the help of Elisha Moses, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. During all this research, I was supported by the Fonds National Suisse. Finally I would like to thank Sonia Iva Zbinden.
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