The purpose of the study was to determine the moderating role of baseline levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on parent- and child-level outcomes following the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention at immediate post-intervention and follow-up assessment. One-hundred sixty-one children between the ages of 3–9 (Mean age = 7.6; 73% male) with parental concerns of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were randomly assigned to the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention, a task-shifted intervention delivered by a volunteer workforce across 12 community-based settings in Denmark, or to a wait-list control condition. Parent report of parenting behavior, sense of competence, stress, depressive symptoms as well as child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and child noncompliance were collected at baseline, immediate post-intervention and at follow-up assessment points. Analyses indicated no moderating effect of baseline attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on parent- and child-outcomes, with no to large effects at post-treatment with maintenance of effects at follow-up assessment. The results of these analyses suggest that the Caring in Chaos behavioral parent training intervention can be utilized with young children with varying levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. These findings further support that community-based interventions delivered by nonprofessionals may serve as a beneficial option to increase availability and access to behavioral parent training for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Community-based BPT programs delivered by volunteers are a feasible alternative to commercial interventions.
Homegrown interventions can improve access to treatments that typically require extensive cost and time.
Baseline ADHD symptoms did not moderate parent and child outcomes of the Caring in Chaos intervention.
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Funding for this study was provided by Trygfonden (Denmark).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee at SFI- The Danish National Centre for Social Research and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Scavenius, C., Chacko, A. & Horn, E.P. ADHD Symptoms do not Moderate Outcomes to Behavioral Parent Training Delivered in the Voluntary Sector. J Child Fam Stud 30, 51–64 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01856-5
- ADHD, Parent training
- Community-based, Paraprofessional