Cost Effectiveness of Strategies for Recruiting Low-Income Families for Behavioral Parent Training
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The goal of this study was to assess cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of recruitment strategies used to engage low-income families of young children with disruptive behavior disorder to participate in a Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) program. For this analysis, we used data on labor and non-labor resources associated with 13 recruitment strategies implemented in February 2014 through February 2016. We assessed the effectiveness of each strategy as the number of families that enrolled into the study. Cost-effectiveness of each recruitment strategy was expressed as cost per family enrolled; analysis was conducted in 2016. We calculated the cost of total recruitment effort for 13 strategies during the 2-year period to be $11,496 with an average cost of $885 per recruitment strategy or $255 per enrolled family. Across strategies, total costs ranged from $25 to $2540. “University mass e-mail” and “school flyers” resulted in the most phone screens (34 each); however, only 10% of these families enrolled in the study (three and four families, respectively). “Craigslist” was the most effective strategy with 30 families screened and 11 of them enrolling. Three strategies did not yield any participants. The four strategies with the lowest cost per family enrolled were “Facebook page,” “Craigslist,” “university mass e-mail,” and “organization/agency” (<$90). In conclusion, we found that some recruitment strategies were more successful at engaging low-income families to participate in a BPT program than others. Our results indicate that using a combination of recruitment strategies may be the optimal approach for recruiting low-income families.
KeywordsBehavioral parent training Disruptive behavior disorder Recruitment strategies Cost-effectiveness
All co-authors contributed substantively to the research questions, hypotheses, and writing of the manuscript. In addition, OAK developed and implemented the cost data collection approach and assisted with the data analyses and interpretation; PT completed data management and analyses; and DJJ is principal investigator of the parent study upon which this study is based.
This report was prepared with support from the National Institute of Mental Health (grant 1-R01-MH100377).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provided IRB approval for the study.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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