Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1040–1050 | Cite as

The Observation of Child Behavior During Parent-Child Interaction: The Psychometric Properties of the Crowell Procedure

  • Laurie Loop
  • Bénédicte Mouton
  • Elise Brassart
  • Isabelle Roskam
Original Paper

Abstract

The observation of child behavior has to be made in ecologically valid contexts. Parent-child interaction was thought to be the most suitable context, since empirical evidence displayed strong associations with children’s behavioral outcomes, psychopathology, social relationships and well-being. Using clinical data from 137 caregiver-child dyads, the main goal of the current study was to test the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Crowell Procedure among preschoolers. Despite the interest that the Crowell Procedure has aroused, its psychometric properties remain relatively under-documented. This research aimed to study (1) the association between parental and child behavior, (2) the discriminant properties of the Crowell Procedure between preschoolers with a clinical level of externalizing behavior and non-clinical children and (3) the correlation between the Crowell Procedure and a behavioral checklist. The results support the consistency of both tasks and scales, the discriminant properties, external validity and fidelity of the coding system. The Crowell Procedure can therefore be used as an observational paradigm to assess both child and parent behavior in clinical and research contexts. The discriminant analyses revealed that the procedure was effective at differentiating children displaying a clinical level of externalizing behavior from normally developing ones.

Keywords

Child behavior Observational paradigm Parent-child interaction Psychometric properties Preschoolers 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000a). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment; child behavior checklist for ages 1 1/2-5; language development survey; caregiver-teacher report form. University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000b). Mental health practitioner’s guide for the achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA). Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2004). The achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) for ages 1.5 to 18 years the use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Volume 2: Instruments for children and adolescents. 3rd edn. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers 179–213.Google Scholar
  4. Aoki, Y., Zeanah, C. H., Heller, S. S., & Bakshi, S. (2002). Parent-infant relationship global assessment scale: A study of its predictive validity. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 56, 493–497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, M. A., Gustafsson, H., Deng, M., Mills‐Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. (2012). Bidirectional associations among sensitive parenting, language development, and social competence. Infant and Child Development, 21, 374–393.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.Google Scholar
  7. Brassart, E., & Schelstraete, M. -A. (2015a). Enhancing the communication abilities of preschoolers at risk for behavior problems: Effectiveness of a parent-implemented language intervention. Infants & Young Children, 28, 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brassart, E., & Schelstraete, M. -A. (2015b). Simplifying parental language or increasing verbal responsiveness, what is the most efficient way to enhance preschoolers’ verbal interactions? Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Budd, K. S., Poindexter, L. M., Felix, E. D., & Naik-Polan, A. T. (2001). Clinical assessment of parents in child protection cases: An empirical analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 25, 93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cassidy, J. (2008). The nature of the child’s ties. In J. Cassidy, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. 2nd edn. (pp. 3–22). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2003). Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence in parenting, and toddlers’ behavior and developmental status. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24, 126–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conway, A., Mcdonough, S. C., Mackenzie, M., Miller, A., Dayton, C., Rosenblum, K., et al. (2014). Maternal sensitivity and latency to positive emotion following challenge: Pathways through effortful control. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 274–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Criss, M. M., Shaw, D. S., & Ingoldsby, E. M. (2003). Mother–son positive synchrony in middle childhood: Relation to antisocial behavior. Social Development, 12, 379–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crowell, J., & Feldman, S. (1988). Mothers’ internal models of relationships and children’s behavioral and developmental status: A study of mother-child interaction. Child Development, 59, 1273–1285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowell, J., Feldman, S., & Ginsberg, N. (1988). Assessment of mother-child interaction in preschoolers with behavior problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: A critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendtations for further study. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 483–509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fitzgerald, M. M., Shipman, K. L., Jackson, J. L., McMahon, R. J., & Hanley, H. M. (2005). Perceptions of parenting versus parent-child interactions among incest survivors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 661–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychmetric properties of the strenghts and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heller, S., Aoki, Y., & Sheffner, X. (1999). Revision of the Crowell parent-child relationship scale. New Orleans: Tulane University Medical Center.Google Scholar
  20. Hynan, D. J. (2003). Parent-child observations in custody evaluations. Family Court Review, 41, 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kraemer, H. C., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., & Kupfer, D. J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: Mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1566–1577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lieberman, A. F. (2004). Traumatic stress and quality of attachment: Reality and internalization in disorders of infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25, 336–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lieberman, A. F., Silverman, R., & Pawl, J. H. (2000). Infant-parent psychotherapy: Core concepts and current approaches. Handbook of Infant Mental Health, 2, 472–484.Google Scholar
  24. Loop, L., & Roskam, I. (2016). Do children behave better when parents are reinforced in emotion coaching? A micro-trial research. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2223–2235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luby, J. L., Sullivan, J., Belden, A., Stalets, M., Blankenship, S., & Spitznagel, E. (2006). An observational analysis of behavior in depressed preschoolers: Further validation of early-onset depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 203–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Malik, N. M., Lederman, C. S., Crowson, M. M., & Osofsky, J. (2002). Evaluating maltreated infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in dependency court. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 576–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meunier, J. C., & Roskam, I. (2009). Validation of the preschool and primary school form of a questionnaire assessing parents’ childrearing behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 166–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Meunier, J. C., Roskam, I., & Browne, D. T. (2011). Relations between parenting and child’s behavior: Exploring child’s personality and parental self-efficacy as third variables. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller, A. L., McDonough, S. C., Rosenblum, K. L., & Sameroff, A. (2002). Emotion regulation in context: Situational effects on infant and caregiver behavior. Infancy, 3, 403–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miron, D., Lewis, M., & Zeanah, C. H. (2009). Clinical use of observational procedures in early childhood relatinship assessment. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Misri, S., Reebye, P., Kendrick, K., Carter, D., Ryan, D., Grunau, R. E., & Oberlander, T. F. (2006). Internalizing behaviors in 4-year-old children exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1026–1032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mouton, B., & Roskam, I. (2014). Confident mothers, easier children: A quasi-experimental manipulation of mothers’ self-efficacy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1–11.Google Scholar
  33. Noordhof, A., Oldehinkel, A. J., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2008). Optimal use of multi-informant data on co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems: The TRAILS study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17, 174–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Osofsky, J., Bosquet, M., Kronenberg, M., & Hammer, J. (2003). Revision of parent-child relationship coding manual. New Orleans: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.Google Scholar
  35. Osofsky, J., Kronenberg, M., Hammer, J., Lederman, J. C., Katz, L., Adams, S., & Hogan, A. (2007). The development and evaluation of the intervention model for the Florida Infant Mental Health Pilot Program. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28, 259–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pardini, D., Fite, P., & Burke, J. (2008). Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: The moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 647–662.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Robinson, L. R., Morris, A. S., Heller, S., Scheeringa, M. S., Boris, N. W., & Smyke, A. T. (2009). Relations between emotion regulation, parenting, and psychopathology in young maltreated children in out of home care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 421–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roskam, I., Brassart, E., Loop, L., Mouton, B., & Schelstraete, M. -A. (2015). Stimulating parents’ self-efficacy beliefs or verbal responsiveness: Which is the best way to decrease children’s externalizing behaviors? Behavior Research and Therapy, 72, 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roskam, I., Meunier, J. C., & Stievenart, M. (2013). The comparison and combination of multi-informant and multi-method data on preschoolers’ externalizing behaviour. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 14, 79–93.Google Scholar
  40. Roskam, I., Meunier, J.C., & Stievenart, M. (2015). From parents to siblings and peers. The Wonderful Story of Social Development, 5, 1–13Google Scholar
  41. Sameroff, A. (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sameroff, A., & Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: The developmental ecology of early intervention. Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention, 2, 135–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., Myers, L., & Putnam, F. (2004). Heart period and variability findings in preschool children with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 685–691.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmidt, F., Cuttress, L. J., Lang, J., Lewandowski, M. J., & Rawana, J. S. (2007). Assessing the parent–child relationship in parenting capacity evaluations: Clinical applications of attachment research. Family Court Review, 45, 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Slagt, M., Deković, M., de Haan, A. D., van den Akker, A. L., & Prinzie, P. (2012). Longitudinal associations between mothers’ and fathers’ sense of competence and children’s externalizing problems: The mediating role of parenting. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1554–1562.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Smyke, A.T. (2000). Effects of maternal maltreating status on maternal representation and mother-child interaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of New Orleans.Google Scholar
  47. Sprang, G., Clark, J., Kaak, O., & Brenzel, A. (2004). Developing and tailoring mental health technologies for child welfare: The Comprehensive Assessment and Training Services (CATS) Project. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74, 325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Sprang, G., & Craig, C. (2014). Crowell problem solving procedure: A psychometric analysis of a laboratory measure of the caregiver-child relationship. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20, 202–209Google Scholar
  49. Sroufe, L. A. (1989). Relationships, self and individual adaptation. In A. J. Sameroff & R. N. Emde (Eds.), Relationship disturbances in early childhood (pp. 70–94). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Velderman, M. K., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Zevalkink, J. (2006). Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 466–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Verhoeven, M., Junger, M., van Aken, C., Deković, M., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2010). Parenting and children’s externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Verschueren, K., Dossche, D., Marcoen, A., Mahieu, S., & Bakermans‐Kranenburg, M. (2006). Attachment representations and discipline in mothers of young school children: An observation study. Social Development, 15, 659–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wettig, H. H., Coleman, A., & Geider, F. J. (2011). Evaluating the effectiveness of theraplay in treating shy, socially withdrawn children. International Journal of Play Therapy, 20, 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zeanah, C. H., Larrieu, J. A., Heller, S., & Valliere, J. (2000). Infant-parent relationship assessment. In J. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health. 2nd edn. (pp. 222–235). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  55. Zeanah, C. H., Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., Smyke, A. T., Marshall, P., Parker, S. W., & Koga, S. (2003). Designing research to study the effects of institutionalization on brain and behavioral development: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 885–907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurie Loop
    • 1
  • Bénédicte Mouton
    • 1
  • Elise Brassart
    • 1
  • Isabelle Roskam
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychological Sciences Research InstituteUniversity of LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations