Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 961–976 | Cite as

Parent-Professional Alliance and Outcomes of Child, Parent, and Family Treatment: A Systematic Review

  • Marieke de Greef
  • Huub M. Pijnenburg
  • Marion J. C. van Hattum
  • Bryce D. McLeod
  • Ron H. J. Scholte
Original Paper

Abstract

This review systematically explored research examining the relation between parent-professional alliance and outcomes of psychosocial treatments provided to children, and their parents and families. Study findings and methodological characteristics were reviewed to investigate the evidence linking the alliance between parents and professionals to outcomes of child, parent, and family treatment as well as to identify factors that may influence the alliance-outcome association. A systematic review of the literature was conducted that included a search of three electronic databases using specified search terms, followed by a hand search to identify relevant studies. A total of 46 studies (37 published articles and 9 unpublished dissertations) met inclusion criteria. Overall, the findings indicated that higher levels of parent-professional alliance were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes and stronger treatment engagement. However, some studies found that the parent-professional alliance was not significantly related to clinical outcomes or treatment engagement, and a few studies showed that higher levels of alliance were related to less positive clinical outcomes and lower levels of treatment engagement. Several theoretical (problem type, child age, parent sex) and methodological (source and timing of alliance measurement, alliance-outcome informants, outcome domain, timing of outcome measurement) factors were identified that could influence the alliance-outcome association. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of alliance awareness when working with parents as well as a need for future studies to investigate factors influencing the quality of the parent-professional alliance and alliance-outcome association in child, parent, and family treatment.

Keywords

Alliance Parent Professional Treatment Outcome 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

References

  1. References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the systematic review.Google Scholar
  2. *Accurso, E. C., Hawley, K. M., & Garland, A. F. (2013). Psychometric properties of the therapeutic alliance scale for caregivers and parents. Psychological Assessment, 25, 244–252. doi: 10.1037/a0030551.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. *Anderson, R. E. E., Spence, S. H., Donovan, C. L., March, S., Prosser, S., & Kenardy, J. (2012). Working alliance in online cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in youth: Comparison with clinic delivery and its role in predicting outcome. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, 86–101. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. *Becker, T. (2011). Effectiveness of parent call-in versus e-counseling services intreating pediatric behavior problems uncovered in a primary care medical encounter. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 73(2), 1239.Google Scholar
  5. *Bickman, L., De Andrade, A. R. V., Athay, M. M., Chen, J. I., De Nadai, A. S., Jordan-Arthur, B. L., & Karver, M. S. (2012). The relationship between change in therapeutic alliance ratings and improvement in youth symptom severity: Whose ratings matter the most? Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39, 78–89. doi: 10.1007/s10488-011-0398-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 16, 252–260. doi: 10.1037/h0085885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. *Canning, J. J. (1997). The effect of family support on the working alliance in psychotherapy with psychiatrically disturbed parents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(8), 3306.Google Scholar
  8. *Chaffin, M., & Bard, D. (2011). Changes in parental depression symptoms during family preservation services. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 448–458. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. *Chaffin, M., Bard, D., Bigfoot, D. S., & Maher, E. J. (2012). Is a structured, manualized, evidence-based treatment protocol culturally competent and equivalently effective among American Indian parents in child welfare? Child Maltreatment, 17, 242–252. doi: 10.1177/1077559512457239.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, R. E., & Samnaliev, M. (2005). Psychosocial treatment in the 21st century. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 28, 532–544. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2005.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. *Davis, N. O. (2007). Working alliance and maternal psychological functioning: Mothers raising toddlers with autism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 69(1), 671.Google Scholar
  12. Diamond, G. M., Liddle, H. A., Hogue, A., & Dakof, G. A. (1999). Alliance-building interventions with adolescents in family therapy: A process study. Psychotherapy, 36, 355–368. doi: 10.1037/h0087729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. *Eder, L. E. (2003). The impact of the mother’s attitudes and her relationship with her child’s therapist on the development of the working alliance and successful outcome with the adolescent client. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 64(4), 1898.Google Scholar
  14. Elvins, R., & Green, J. (2008). The conceptualization and measurement of therapeutic alliance: An empirical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1167–1187. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.04.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. England, M. J., Butler, A. S., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2015). Introduction. In Committee on Developing Evidence-Based Standards for Psychological Interventions for Mental Disorders, Board on Health Sciences Policy, & Institute of Medicine (Eds.), Psychosocial interventions for mental and substance use disorders: A framework for establishing evidence-based standards (pp. 21–46). Washington, DC: The National Academies. doi: 10.17226/19013.
  16. *Forsberg, S., LoTempio, E., Bryson, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., & Lock, J. (2014). Parent-therapist alliance in family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 22, 53–58. doi: 10.1002/erv.2242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedlander, M. L., Escudero, V., Heatherington, L., & Diamond, G. M. (2011). Alliance in couple and family therapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 25–33. doi: 10.1037/a0022060.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Friedlander, M. L., Escudero, V., Horvath, A. O., Heatherington, L., Cabero, A., & Martens, M. P. (2006). System for observing family therapy alliances: A tool for research and practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 214–224. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.53.2.214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. *Friedlander, M. L., Kivlighan, D. M., & Shaffer, K. S. (2012). Exploring actor-partner interdependence in family therapy: Whose view (parent or adolescent) best predicts treatment progress? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 168–175. doi: 10.1037/a0024199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. *Garland, A. F., Haine-Schlagel, R., Accurso, E. C., Baker-Ericzén, M. J., & Brookman-Frazee, L. (2012). Exploring the effect of therapists’ treatment practices on client attendance in community-based care for children. Psychological Services, 9, 74–88. doi: 10.1037/a0027098.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. *Gatta, M., Spoto, A., Svanellini, L., Lai, J., Toldo, I., Testa, C. P., & Battistella, P. A. (2012). Alliance with patient and collaboration with parents throughout the psychotherapeutic process with children and adolescents: A pilot study. Journal of Psychopathology, 18, 28–34.Google Scholar
  22. *Girvin, H., DePanfilis, D., & Daining, C. (2007). Predicting program completion among families enrolled in a child neglect preventive intervention. Research on Social Work Practice, 17, 674–685. doi: 10.1177/1049731507300285.Google Scholar
  23. Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). Dynamic systems methods for models of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 641–669. doi: 10.1017/S0954579403000324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. *Granic, I., Otten, R., Blokland, K., Solomon, T., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Ferguson, B. (2012). Maternal depression mediates the link between therapeutic alliance and improvements in adolescent externalizing behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 880–885. doi: 10.1037/a0030716.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. *Green, J., Jacobs, B., Beecham, J., Dunn, G., Kroll, L., Tobias, C., & Briskman, J. (2007). Inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry: A prospective study of health gain and costs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1259–1267. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01802.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. *Green, J., Kroll, L., Imrie, D., Frances, F. M., Begum, K., Harrison, L., & Anson, R. (2001). Health gain and outcome predictors during inpatient and related day treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 325–332. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200103000-00012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. *Guzder, J., Bond, S., Rabiau, M., Zelkowitz, P., & Rohar, S. (2011). The relationship between alliance, attachment and outcome in a child multi-modal treatment population: Pilot study. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 196–202.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A review of parent participation engagement in child and family mental health treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18, 133–150. doi: 10.1007/s10567-015-0182-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. *Harvey, S. (2008). An initial look at the outcomes for dynamic play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 17, 86–101. doi: 10.1037/a0013663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. *Hawley, K. M., & Garland, A. F. (2008). Working alliance in adolescent outpatient therapy: Youth, parent and therapist reports and associations with therapy outcomes. Child & Youth Care Forum, 37, 59–74. doi: 10.1007/s10566-008-9050-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. *Hawley, K. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). Youth versus parent working alliance in usual clinical care: Distinctive associations with retention, satisfaction, and treatment outcome. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 117–128. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. *Hogue, A., Dauber, S., Stambaugh, L. F., Cecero, J. J., & Liddle, H. A. (2006). Early therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in individual and family therapy for adolescent behavior problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 121–129. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Horvath, A. O., & Bedi, R. P. (2002). The alliance. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work. Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 37–69). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 9–16. doi: 10.1037/a0022186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Horvath, A. O., & Greenberg, L. S. (1989). Development and validation of the working alliance inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 223–233. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.36.2.223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horvath, A. O., & Luborsky, L. (1993). The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 561–573. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.61.4.561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L., Miller, S. D., & Wampold, B. E. (2010). Introduction. In B. L. Duncan, S. D. Miller, B. E. Wampold, & M. A. Hubble (Eds.), The heart and soul of change. Delivering what works in therapy (pp. 23–46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. *Hukkelberg, S. S., & Ogden, T. (2013). Working alliance and treatment fidelity as predictors of externalizing problem behaviors in parent management training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 1010–1020. doi: 10.1037/a0033825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. *Isserlin, L., & Couturier, J. (2012). Therapeutic alliance and family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Psychotherapy, 49, 46–51. doi: 10.1037/a0023905.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. *Johnson, L. N., Wright, D. W., & Ketring, S. A. (2002). The therapeutic alliance in home-based family therapy: Is it predictive of outcome? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 28, 93–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kazdin, A. E., Holland, L., & Crowley, M. (1997). Family experience of barriers to treatment and premature termination from child therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 453–463. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. *Kazdin, A. E., Marciano, P. L., & Whitley, M. K. (2005). The therapeutic alliance in cognitive-behavioral treatment of children referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 726–730. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.4.726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kazdin, A. E., Siegel, T. C., & Bass, D. (1990). Drawing on clinical practice to inform research on child and adolescent psychotherapy: Survey of practitioners. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 189–198. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.21.3.189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. *Kazdin, A. E., & Whitley, M. K. (2006). Pretreatment social relations, therapeutic alliance, and improvements in parenting practices in parent management training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 346–355. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. *Kazdin, A. E., Whitley, M., & Marciano, P. L. (2006). Child-therapist and parent-therapist alliance and therapeutic change in the treatment of children referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 436–445. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01475.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. *Keeley, M. L., Geffken, G. R., Ricketts, E., McNamara, J. P. H., & Storch, E. A. (2011). The therapeutic alliance in the cognitive behavioral treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 855–863. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.03.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. *Korfmacher, J., Green, B., Spellman, M., & Thornburg, K. R. (2007). The helping relationship and program participation in early childhood home visiting. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28, 459–480. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kroll, L., & Green, J. M. (1997). Therapeutic alliance in inpatient child treatment: Development and initial validation of a family engagement questionnaire. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2, 431–447. doi: 10.1177/1359104597023009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. *Lerner, M. D., Mikami, A. Y., & McLeod, B. D. (2011). The alliance in a friendship coaching intervention for parents of children with ADHD. Behavior Therapy, 42, 449–461. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2010.11.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Lewis, M. D. (2000). The promise of dynamic systems approaches for an integrated account of human development. Child Development, 71, 36–43. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. K. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 438–450. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.3.438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. McKay, M. M., & Bannon, W. M. (2004). Engaging families in child mental health services. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13, 905–921. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2004.04.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McLeod, B. D. (2011). Relation of the alliance with outcomes in youth psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 603–616. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. McLeod, B. D., & Weisz, J. R. (2004). Using dissertations to examine potential bias in child and adolescent clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 235–251. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.2.235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. *McLeod, B. D., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). The therapy process observational coding system-alliance scale: Measure characteristics and prediction of outcome in usual clinical practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 323–333. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.2.323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Minuchin, P. (1985). Families and individual development: Provocations from the field of family therapy. Child Development, 56, 289–302. doi: 10.2307/1129720.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6, 1–6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed1000097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. *Myers, S. J. (2008). Relationship between the consultant-parent working alliance and ratings of the consultation process with parents of children having autism spectrum disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 69(6), 2222.Google Scholar
  59. Norcross, J. C. (2010). The therapeutic relationship. In B. L. Duncan, S. D. Miller, B. E. Wampold, & M. A. Hubble (Eds.), The heart and soul of change. Delivering what works in therapy (pp. 113–141). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. *Pereira, T., Lock, J., & Oggins, J. (2006). Role of therapeutic alliance in family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 677–684. doi: 10.1002/eat.20303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Pinsof, W. B. (1994). An integrative systems perspective on the therapeutic alliance: Theoretical, clinical, and research implications. In A. O. Horvath, & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 173–195). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Poulin, J., & Young, T. (1997). Development of a helping relationship inventory for social work practice. Research on Social Work Practice, 7, 463–489. doi: 10.1177/104973159700700403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Remschmidt, H., & Belfer, M. (2005). Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: A review. World Psychiatry, 4, 147–153.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. *Robbins, M. S., Liddle, H. A., Turner, C. W., Dakof, G. A., Alexander, J. F., & Kogan, S. M. (2006). Adolescent and parent therapeutic alliances as predictors of dropout in multidimensional family therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 108–116. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. *Robbins, M. S., Mayorga, C. C., Mitrani, V. B., Szapocznik, J., Turner, C. W., & Alexander, J. F. (2008). Adolescent and parent alliances with therapists in brief strategic family therapy with drug-using hispanic adolescents. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34, 316–328. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2008.00075.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. *Robbins, M. S., Turner, C. W., Alexander, J. F., & Perez, G. A. (2003). Alliance and dropout in family therapy for adolescents with behavior problems: Individual and systemic effects. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 534–544. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.17.4.534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Russell, A., Aloa, V., Feder, T., Glover, A., Miller, H., & Palmer, G. (1998). Sex-based differences in parenting styles in a sample with preschool children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 50, 89–99. doi: 10.1080/00049539808257539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. *Santos, R. G. (2005). Effectiveness of early intervention for infants and their families: Relating the working alliance to program outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 66(10), 5714.Google Scholar
  70. *Sapyta, J. J. (2006). Evaluating therapeutic alliance longitudinally: Describing therapeutic alliance growth and its implications for outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 72(3), 1805.Google Scholar
  71. *Schmidt, F., Chomycz, S., Houlding, C., Kruse, A., & Franks, J. (2014). The association between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in a group triple P intervention. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1337–1350. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9792-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. *Schrag, R. D. A. (2005). An investigation of the role of the therapeutic relationship in premature termination of treatment for conduct disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 66(5), 2840.Google Scholar
  73. *Shelef, K., & Diamond, G. M. (2008). Short form of the revised vanderbilt therapeutic alliance scale: Development, reliability, and validity. Psychotherapy Research, 18, 433–443. doi: 10.1080/10503300701810801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. *Shelef, K., Diamond, G. M., Diamond, G. S., & Liddle, H. A. (2005). Adolescent and parent alliance and treatment outcome in multidimensional family therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 689–698. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.4.689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Shirk, S. R., Karver, M. S., & Brown, R. (2011). The alliance in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 17–24. doi: 10.1037/a0022181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Shirk, S. R., & Saiz, C. C. (1992). Clinical, empirical, and developmental perspectives on the therapeutic relationship in child psychotherapy. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 713–728. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400004946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. *Smith, R. (2010). The impact of therapeutic alliance on outcomes in parent-child dyadic interventions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 72(1), 515.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, A. E. M., Msetfi, R. M., & Golding, L. (2010). Client self rated adult attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 326–337. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Stahmer, A. C., Hurlburt, M., Horwitz, S. M., Landsverk, J., Zhang, J., & Leslie, L. K. (2009). Associations between intensity of child welfare involvement and child development among young children in child welfare. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 598–611. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.07.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) (2016). Jeugdhulp 2015. https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/publicatie/2016/17/jeugdhulp-2015. Accessed on 8 April 2016.
  81. *The Multisite Violence Prevention Project. (2014). Implementation and process effects on prevention outcomes for middle school students. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43, 473–485. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.814540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tracey, T. J., & Kokotovic, A. M. (1989). Factor structure of the working alliance inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 207–210. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.1.3.207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. *Trute, B., & Hiebert-Murphy, D. (2007). The implications of working alliance for the measurement and evaluation of family-centered practice in childhood disability services. Infants & Young Children, 20, 109–119. doi: 10.1097/01.IYC.0000264479.50817.4b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wittkowski, A., Dowling, H., & Smith, D. M. (2016). Does engaging in a group-based intervention increase parental self-efficacy in parents of preschool children? A systematic review of the current literature. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1–19. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0464-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Centre for Social Support and Community CareHAN University of Applied SciencesNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Behavioural Science InstituteRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUnited States
  4. 4.PraktikonNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations