Skip to main content

The Contribution of Temperamental and Cognitive Factors to Childhood Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A Closer Look at Negative Affect, Behavioral Inhibition, and Anxiety Sensitivity

Abstract

This study examined the role of anxiety sensitivity as an explanatory variable in the link between two temperamental dimensions (i.e., behavioral inhibition and negative affect) and anxiety disorder symptom severity in a sample of children with anxiety disorders. Forty-four children (52 % African American) between 8 and 12 years of age and their mothers participated in this study. An assessment battery consisting of diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, and behavioral assessment of behavioral inhibition was administered. Findings revealed that anxiety sensitivity was a significant explanatory variable linking child self-reports of behavioral inhibition and negative affect to anxiety disorder symptom severity. For parent-completed measures, only direct effects of behavioral inhibition on anxiety disorder symptom severity were found. The clinical implications of our findings, including the importance and feasibility of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition assessments as part of routine clinical care of children with anxiety disorders are discussed, along with the limitations of our study.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Child behavior checklist/4-18. University of Vermont, Psychiatry.

  2. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 213–232. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3562706.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Albano, A., & Silverman, W. (1996). Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV-child version: Clinical Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

  5. Arden, J., & Linford, L. (2009). Brain-based therapy for adults. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bar-Haim, Y., Fox, N. A., Benson, B., Guyer, A. E., Williams, A., & Nelson, E. E., et al. (2009). Neural correlates of reward processing in adolescents with a history of inhibited temperament. Psychological Science, 20(8), 1009–1018. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02401.x.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bates, J. E. (1989). Concepts and measures of temperament. In G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates, M. K. Rothbart, G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates, M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 3–26). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Herot, C., Friedman, D., & Snidman, N., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. Am J Psychiatry, 158(10), 1673–1679.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bukowski, W. M., & Cillessen, A. H. (1998). Sociometry then and now: Building on six decades of measuring children’s experiences with the peer group. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Buss, K. A., Davis, E. L., Kiel, E. J., Brooker, R. J., Beekman, C., & Early, M. C. (2013). Dysregulated fear predicts social wariness and social anxiety symptoms during kindergarten. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42(5), 603–616.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chorpita, B. F. (2002). The tripartite model and dimensions of anxiety and depression: An examination of structure in a large school sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(2), 177–190. doi:10.1023/A:1014709417132.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chorpita, B. F., Moffitt, C. E., & Gray, J. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(3), 309–322. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.004.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(8), 835–855. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Choudhury, M. S., Pimentel, S. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2003). Childhood anxiety disorders: Parent-child (dis)agreement using a structured interview for the DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(8), 957–964. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000046898.27264.A2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rubin, K. H., O’Brien, K. A., Coplan, R. J., Thomas, S. R., & Dougherty, L. R., et al. (2015). Preliminary evaluation of a multimodal early intervention program for behaviorally inhibited preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(3), 534–540. doi:10.1037/a0039043.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Comer, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2004). A symptom-level examination of parent-child agreement in the diagnosis of anxious youths. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(7), 878–886. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000125092.35109.c5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Coplan, R. J., Wilson, J., Frohlick, S. L., & Zelenski, J. (2006). A person-oriented analysis of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation in children. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(5), 917–927. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.02.019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Dix, T., & Lochman, J. E. (1990). Social cognition and negative reactions to children: A comparison of mothers of aggressive and nonaggressive boys. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(4), 418–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Dougherty, L. R. (2006). Children’s emotionality and social status: A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 15(3), 394–417. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00348.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Nakamura, B. J., Chorpita, B. F., Higa-McMillan, C. K., & Weisz, J. R. (2010). Concurrent validity of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-oriented scales: Correspondence with DSM diagnoses and comparison to syndrome scales. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(3), 373–384. doi:10.1007/s10862-009-9174-9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., & Kennedy, S. (2010). Prediction of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: Examination of maternal and paternal perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(3), 313–321. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02160.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Eisenberg, N., Hofer, C., & Vaughan, J. (2007). Effortful control and its socioemotional consequences. Handbook of Emotion Regulation, 2, 287–288.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Fox, N. A., & Helfinstein, S. M. (2013). The contribution of temperament to the study of social cognition: Learning whether the glass is half empty or half full. In M. R. Banaji, S. A. Gelman, M. R. Banaji, & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 49–53). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  24. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235–262. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141532.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1991). Contemporary instruments for assessing early temperament by questionnaire and in the laboratory. In J. Strelau, A. Angleitner, J. Strelau, & A. Angleitner (Eds.), Explorations in temperament: International perspectives on theory and measurement (pp. 249–272). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  26. Grills, A. E., & Ollendick, T. H. (2003). Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(1), 30–40. doi:10.1097/00004583-200301000-00008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Guyer, A. E., Nelson, E. E., Perez-Edgar, K., Hardin, M. G., Roberson-Nay, R., & Monk, C. S., et al. (2006). Striatal functional alteration in adolescents characterized by early childhood behavioral inhibition. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(24), 6399–6405. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0666-06.2006.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Hagopian, L. P., & Ollendick, T. H. (1996). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety sensitivity: A reanalysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(2), 247–252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451–470. doi:10.1111/bmsp.12028.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., & Taylor, C. B. (2000). Predictors of panic attacks in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(2), 207–214. doi:10.1097/00004583-200002000-00021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Helfinstein, S. M., Benson, B., Perez-Edgar, K., Bar-Haim, Y., Detloff, A., & Pine, D. S., et al. (2011). Striatal responses to negative monetary outcomes differ between temperamentally inhibited and non-inhibited adolescents. Neuropsychologia, 49(3), 479–485. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.12.015.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Biederman, J., Henin, A., Faraone, S. V., Davis, S., Harrington, K., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (2007). Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 28(3), 225–233. doi:10.1097/01.DBP.0000268559.34463.d0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Jacob, M. L., Suveg, C., & Whitehead, M. R. (2014). Relations between emotional and social functioning in children with anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 45(5), 519–532. doi:10.1007/s10578-013-0421-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Judd, C. M., & Kenny, D. A. (2010). Data analysis in social psychology: Recent and recurring issues. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, G. Lindzey, S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology. 5th edn. (Vol. 1, pp. 115–139). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kagan, J. (2008). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for psychopathology. In T. P. Beauchaine, S. P. Hinshaw, T. P. Beauchaine, & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (pp. 157–179). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., Snidman, N., Gibbons, J., & Johnson, M. O. (1988). Childhood derivatives of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar. Child Development, 59(6), 1580–1589. doi:10.2307/1130672.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. (1991). Temperamental factors in human development. American Psychologist, 46(8), 856–862.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kagan, J., Snidman, N., & Arcus, D. (1998). Childhood derivatives of high and low reactivity in infancy. Child Development, 69(6), 1483–1493. doi:10.2307/1132126.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Keough, M. E., & Schmidt, N. B. (2012). Refinement of a brief anxiety sensitivity reduction intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(5), 766–772. doi:10.1037/a0027961.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Laurent, J., Catanzaro, S. J., Joiner, Jr., T. E., Rudolph, K. D., Potter, K. I., & Lambert, S., et al. (1999). A measure of positive and negative affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 326–338. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.326.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Lonigan, C. J., & Phillips, B. M. (2001). Temperamental influences on the development of anxiety disorders. In M. W. Vasey, M. R. Dadds, M. W. Vasey, & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety (pp. 60–91). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  42. Malhotra, N. K., Kim, S. S., & Patil, A. (2006). Common method variance in IS research: A comparison of alternative approaches and a reanalysis of past research. Management Science, 52(12), 1865–1883. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1060.0597.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Spinder, M. (2003). Relationships between child- and parent-reported behavioural inhibition and symptoms of anxiety and depression in normal adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(5), 759–771. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00069-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (2001). The etiology of childhood specific phobia: A multifactorial model. In M. W. Vasey, M. R. Dadds, M. W. Vasey, & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety (pp. 355–385). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  45. Muris, P., van Brakel, A. M. L., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(2), 157–170. doi:10.1007/s10826-010-9365-8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Noel, V. A., & Francis, S. E. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the role of child anxiety sensitivity in child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(5), 721–733. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9489-3.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Olatunji, B. O., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2009). Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 974–999. doi:10.1037/a0017428.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Olino, T. M., Durbin, C. E., Klein, D. N., Hayden, E. P., & Dyson, M. W. (2013). Gender differences in young children’s temperament traits: Comparisons across observational and parent-report methods. Journal of Personality, 81(2), 119–129.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2006). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti, D. J. Cohen, D. Cicchetti, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol 1: Theory and method. 2nd edn. (pp. 419–493). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Pérez-Edgar, K., Bar-Haim, Y., McDermott, J. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal. Emotion, 10(3), 349–357. doi:10.1037/a0018486.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Pina, A. A., Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Weems, C. F. (2001). An analysis of the RCMAS Lie scale in a clinic sample of anxious children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15(5), 443–457. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11583076.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. -Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Putnam, S. P., & Stifter, C. A. (2005). Behavioral approach-inhibition in toddlers: Prediction from infancy, positive and negative affective components, and relations with behavior problems. Child Development, 76(1), 212–226.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rapee, R. M. (2001). The development of generalized anxiety. In M. W. Vasey, M. R. Dadds, M. W. Vasey, & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety (pp. 481–503). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  55. Rapee, R. M., & Jacobs, D. (2002). The reduction of temperamental risk for anxiety in withdrawn preschoolers: A pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(2), 211–216. doi:10.1017/S1352465802002084.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24(1), 1–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3947307.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, Social, emotional, and personality development. 6th edn. (pp. 99–166). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Rubin, K. H., & Mills, R. S. L. (1992). Parents’ thoughts about children’s socially adaptive and maladaptive behaviors: Stability, change, and individual differences. In I. E. Sigel, A. V. McGillicuddy-DeLisi, J. J. Goodnow, I. E. Sigel, A. V. McGillicuddy-DeLisi, & J. J. Goodnow (Eds.), Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children. 2nd edn. (pp. 41–69). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Rubin, K. H., Nelson, L. J., Hastings, P., & Asendorpf, J. (1999). The transaction between parents’ perceptions of their children’s shyness and their parenting styles. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23(4), 937–958. doi:10.1080/016502599383612.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Rubin, L. H., Witkiewitz, K., St Andre, J., & Reilly, S. (2007). Methods for handling missing data in the behavioral neurosciences: Don t throw the baby rat out with the bath water. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 5(2), 71–77.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Seifer, R., Sameroff, A. J., Barrett, L. C., & Krafchuk, E. (1994). Infant temperament measured by multiple observations and mother report. Child Development, 65(5), 1478–1490. doi:10.2307/1131512.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Sharma, R., Yetton, P., & Crawford, J. (2009). Estimating the effect of common method variance: The method-method pair technique with an illustration from Tam Research. MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 473–490. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000269406300004.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Shatz, S. M. (2005). The psychometric properties of the behavioral inhibition scale in a college-aged sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(2), 331–339. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.01.015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). The anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM–IV—Child and parent versions. SanAntonio, TX: Physiological Corporation.

  65. Silverman, W. K., Fleisig, W., Rabian, B., & Peterson, R. A. (1991). Child anxiety sensitivity index. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20(2), 162–168. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2002_7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Silverman, W. K., Goedhart, A. W., Barrett, P., & Turner, C. (2003). The facets of anxiety sensitivity represented in the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory analyses of factor models from past studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(3), 364–374. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.3.364.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: Child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(8), 937–944. doi:10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Southam-Gerow, M. A., Silverman, W. K., & Kendall, P. C. (2006). Client similarities and differences in two childhood anxiety disorders research clinics. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psycholog, 35(4), 528–538. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3504_4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(5), 545–566. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. SPSS. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. New York: IBM Corp.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th edn. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Taylor, S. (1999). Anxiety sensitivity: Theory, research, and treatment of the fear of anxiety. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Taylor, S., Jang, K. L., Stewart, S. H., & Stein, M. B. (2008). Etiology of the dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: A behavioral-genetic analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 899–914. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.09.005.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Thompson, R. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1996). The double-edged sword: Emotional regulation for children at risk. Development and Psychopathology, 8(1), 163–182. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:A1996TW64100011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. van Brakel, A. M. L., Muris, P., & Bögels, S. M. (2004). Relations between parent-and teacher-reported behavioral inhibition and behavioral observations of this temperamental trait. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(3), 579–589. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3303_15.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Viana, A. G., & Gratz, K. L. (2012). The role of anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, and cognitive biases in anxiety symptoms: Structural equation modeling of direct and indirect pathways. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(10), 1122–1141. doi:10.1002/jclp.21890.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Vizueta, N., Patrick, C. J., Jiang, Y., Thomas, K. M., & He, S. (2012). Dispositional fear, negative affectivity, and neuroimaging response to visually suppressed emotional faces. NeuroImage, 59(1), 761–771. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.015.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Vreeke, L. J., Muris, P., Mayer, B., Huijding, J., Bos, A. E. R., & van der Veen, M., et al. (2012). The assessment of an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in a Dutch multi-ethnic population of preschool children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(11), 623–633. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0299-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), 346–353. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.97.3.346.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Weems, C., & Silverman, W. (2008). Anxiety disorders. In T. P. Beauchaine, & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 447–476). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  81. White, L. K., McDermott, J. M., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2011). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: The moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(5), 735–747. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9490-x.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andres G. Viana.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Funding

This study was funded by an intramural grant from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (PI: Viana).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Viana, A.G., Kiel, E.J., Alfano, C.A. et al. The Contribution of Temperamental and Cognitive Factors to Childhood Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A Closer Look at Negative Affect, Behavioral Inhibition, and Anxiety Sensitivity. J Child Fam Stud 26, 194–204 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0553-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Children
  • Temperament
  • Negative affect
  • Behavioral inhibition
  • Anxiety sensitivity