Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 3523–3536 | Cite as

Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version: Validation on a Sample of School Age Italian Children

  • Elisa Delvecchio
  • Daniela di Riso
  • Jian-Bin Li
  • Adriana Lis
  • Claudia Mazzeschi
Original Paper


The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version is a semi-structured measure of cognitive and affective pretend play processes using a 5 min standardized play task devised for preschool children. This study investigated an extension of the scale in a sample of 333 children, aged 6–10 years. Participants were assessed using another measure of play processes, the Affect in Play Scale, a divergent thinking task, the Alternate Uses Test, a measure of school coping, the School Coping measure, and a measure of empathy, the Index of Empathy for Children. External validity with these measures was investigated, using correlational analyses. Construct validity of the scale was assessed using a confirmatory factor analysis approach. A correlated two-factor structure with a cognitive and an affective factor demonstrated the best fit. Implications for the use of this extension to assess cognitive and affective processes in pretend play and developmental outcomes were discussed.


Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version Construct validity Divergent thinking School coping Italian children 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed written consent was obtained from all parents’ participants included in the study. Oral consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, Social Sciences and EducationUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Developmental Psychology and SocializationUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

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