Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1375–1384 | Cite as

Interactive Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Early Pubertal Timing on Youth Depression and Anxiety: Contextual Amplification in Family and Peer Environments

  • Jeffrey P. Winer
  • Justin Parent
  • Rex Forehand
  • Nicole Lafko Breslend
Original Paper


While off-time pubertal development has emerged as a potential risk factor for both symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth, the literature is mixed and inconsistent as to (1) how early versus late pubertal timing confers risk for both boys and girls, (2) if the conferred risk is distinct between symptoms of anxiety and depression, and (3) under what social contexts (e.g., family environment, peer relationships) off-time pubertal development may emerge as a potent risk factor for these symptoms. The present study examined the impact of perceived pubertal timing on symptoms of anxiety and depression in two distinct psychosocial contexts: parent’s perceptions of their own harsh parenting and parent’s perceptions of their child’s peer problems. The sample consisted of 412 parents (M = 38.6 years old, SD = 7.8, 60.4 % mothers) of children between the ages of 8 and 17 (M = 12.13, SD = 2.97, 45.4 % girls). All constructs were assessed by parent reports. Linear multiple regression analyses revealed that the interaction between earlier pubertal timing and greater peer problems was significantly related to higher youth depressive and anxiety symptoms. The interaction between earlier pubertal timing and greater harsh discipline was significantly related to higher youth anxiety but not depressive symptoms. Youth gender did not qualify findings. Results suggest that the contextual amplification process of early pubertal timing may occur in both high stress family and peer environments and impact both girls and boys.


Pubertal timing Youth anxiety Youth depression Peer problems Harsh parenting 



This research was supported by the Child and Adolescent Psychology Training and Research, Inc (CAPTR). Justin Parent is supported by NICHD F31HD082858. Rex Forehand is supported by RO1HD064723 and R01MH100377. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Worthman, C. M. (1998). Puberty and depression: The roles of age, pubertal status and pubertal timing. Psychological Medicine, 28(1), 51–61. doi: 10.1017/S003329179700593X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arim, R. G., & Shapka, J. D. (2008). The impact of pubertal timing and parental control on adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 445–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arim, R. G., Tramonte, L., Shapka, J. D., Dahinten, V. S., & Willms, J. D. (2011). The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(11), 1423–1435. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9638-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold, D. S., O’Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5, 137. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development. doi: 10.2307/1131166.Google Scholar
  8. Benoit, A., Lacourse, E., & Claes, M. (2013). Pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: The moderating role of individual, peer, and parental factors. Development and Psychopathology, 25(2), 455–471. doi: 10.1017/S0954579412001174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bjornsdotter, A., Enebrink, P., & Ghaderi, A. (2013). Psychometric properties of online administered parental strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7, 40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Block, J. H. (1965). The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): A set of Q items for the description of parental socialization attitudes and values.Google Scholar
  11. Blumenthal, H., Leen-Feldner, E. W., Trainor, C. D., Babson, K., & Bunaciu, L. (2009). Interactive roles of pubertal timing and peer relations in predicting social anxiety symptoms among touth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 401–403. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdon, K. H., Goodman, R., Rae, D. S., Simpson, G., & Koretz, D. S. (2005). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. normative data and psychometric properties. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(6), 557–564. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000159157.57075.c8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Warren, M. P. (1989). Biological and social contributions to negative affect in young adolescent girls. Child Development, 60(1), 40–55. doi: 10.2307/1131069.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 3–5. doi: 10.1177/1745691610393980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Casler, K., Bickel, L., & Hackett, E. (2013). Separate but equal? A comparison of participants and data gathered via Amazon’s MTurk, social media, and face-to-face behavioral testing. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2156–2160. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.05.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandler, J., Mueller, P., & Paolacci, G. (2013). Nonnaïveté among Amazon Mechanical Turk workers: Consequences and solutions for behavioral researchers. Behavior Research Methods. doi: 10.3758/s13428-013-0365-7.Google Scholar
  17. Chorpita, B., & Ebesutani, C. (2014). Revised children’s anxiety and depression scale user’s guide. Unpublished Users Guide, University of California, Los Angeles.
  18. Chorpita, B. F., Moffitt, C., & Gray, J. (2005). Psychometric properties of the revised child anxiety and depression scale in a clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 309–332. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Conley, C. S., & Rudolph, K. D. (2009). The emerging sex difference in adolescent depression: interacting contributions of puberty and peer stress. Development and Psychopathology, 21(2), 593–620. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000327.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Deardorff, J., Ekwaru, J. P., Kushi, L. H., Ellis, B. J., Greenspan, L. C., Mirabedi, A., et al. (2011). Father absence, body mass index, and pubertal timing in girls: Differential effects by family income and ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(5), 441–447. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.07.032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(5), 565–579. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dorn, L. D. (2006). Measuring puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(5), 625–626. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.05.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dorn, L. D., Dahl, R. E., & Woodward, H. R. (2006). Defining the boundaries of early adolescence: A user’s guide to assessing pubertal status and pubertal timing in research with adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 10(1), 30–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebesutani, C., Reise, S. P., Chorpita, B. F., Ale, C., Regan, J., Young, J., et al. (2012). The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale reduction via exploratory bifactor modeling of the broad anxiety factor. Psychological Assessment, 24(4), 833.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellis, B. J. (2004). Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin, 130(6), 920–958. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.6.920.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23(1), 7–28. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Frick, P. J. (1991). The Alabama parenting questionnaire. Unpublished rating scale, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
  29. Galvao, T. F., Silva, M. T., Zimmermann, I. R., Souza, K. M., Martins, S. S., & Pereira, M. G. (2013). Pubertal timing in girls and depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.10.034.Google Scholar
  30. Ge, X., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., & Simons, R. L. (2006). Pubertal maturation and African American children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(4), 528–537. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9046-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 404–417. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.37.3.404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ge, X., Kim, I. J., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., et al. (2003). It’s about timing and change: Pubertal transition effects on symptoms of major depression among African American youths. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 430–439. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.3.430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ge, X., & Natsuaki, M. (2009). In search of explanations for early pubertal timing effects on developmental psychopathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(6), 327–332. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01661.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(5), 581–586. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200111000-00015.Google Scholar
  35. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1337–1345. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200111000-00015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Graber, J., Lewinsohn, P., Seeley, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997). Is psychopathology associated with the timing of pubertal development? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(12), 1768–1776. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199712000-00026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Graber, J. A., Nichols, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Putting pubertal timing in developmental context: Implications for prevention. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(3), 254–262. doi: 10.1002/dev.20438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Graber, J. A., Seeley, J. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2004). Is pubertal timing associated with psychopathology in young adulthood? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(6), 718–726. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000120022.14101.11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamlat, E. J., Stange, J. P., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2014). Early pubertal timing as a vulnerability to depression symptoms: Differential effects of race and sex. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 527–538. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9798-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jones, M. C., & Mussen, P. H. (1958). Self-conceptions, motivations, and interpersonal attitudes of early- and late-maturing girls. Child Development, 29, 491–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, E. J., Georgiades, K., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and socio-demographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 372–380.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Lavigne, J. V., Hopkins, J., Gouze, K. R., & Bryant, F. B. (2014). Bidirectional influences of anxiety and depression in young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 163–176. doi: 10.1007/s10802-014-9884-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lovejoy, M. C., Weis, R., O’Hare, E., & Rubin, E. C. (1999). Development and initial validation of the Parent Behavior Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 11, 534. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.11.4.534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marceau, K., Ram, N., Houts, R. M., Grimm, K. J., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Individual differences in boys’ and girls’ timing and tempo of puberty: Modeling development with nonlinear growth models. Developmental Psychology, 47(5), 1389–1409. doi: 10.1037/a0023838.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. McEachern, A. D., Dishion, T. J., Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2012). Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a self-report parenting measure. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 498–511. doi: 10.1007/s10826-011-9503y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. McKee, L. G., Jones, D. J., Forehand, R., & Cuellar, J. (2013). Assessment of parenting style, parenting relationships, and other parenting variables. In D. Saklofski (Ed.), Handbook of psychological assessment of children and adolescents (pp. 788–921). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. McLeod, B. D., Weisz, J. R., & Wood, J. J. (2007a). Examining the association between parenting and childhood depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(8), 986–1003. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.03.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007b). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(8), 986–1003. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.03.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mendle, J. (2014). Why puberty matters for psychopathology. Child Development Perspectives. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12092.Google Scholar
  51. Mendle, J., Leve, L. D., Van Ryzin, M., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2013). Linking childhood maltreatment with girls’ internalizing symptoms: Early puberty as a tipping point. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 689–702. doi: 10.1111/jora.12075.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Mendle, J., Turkheimer, E., & Emery, R. E. (2007). Detrimental psychological outcomes associated with early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Developmental Review, 27(2), 1–20. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2006.11.001.Detrimental.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-P., Brody, D., Fisher, P. W., Bourdon, K., & Koretz, D. S. (2010). Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among US children in the 2001–2004 NHANES. Pediatrics, 125(1), 75–81. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2598.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Murray-Close, D., Nelson, D. A., Ostrov, J. M., Casas, J. F., & Crick, N. R. (2016). Relational aggression: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, volume four, genes and environment. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Mussen, P. H., & Jones, M. C. (1957). Self-conceptions, motivations, and interpersonal attitudes of late- and early-maturing boys. Child Development, 28, 243–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nadeem, E., & Graham, S. (2005). Early puberty, peer victimization, and internalizing symptoms in ethnic minority adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 197–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Negriff, S., Fung, M., & Trickett, P. (2008). Self-rated pubertal development, depressive symptoms and delinquency: Measurement issues and moderation by gender and maltreatment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(6), 55–75. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9274-y.Self-Rated.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Negriff, S., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Pubertal timing, depression, and externalizing problems: A framework, review, and examination of gender differences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(3), 717–746. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00708.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Paolacci, G., & Chandler, J. (2014). Inside the turk: Understanding mechanical turk as a participant pool. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 184–188. doi: 10.1177/0963721414531598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parent, J. & Forehand, R. (2014). Multidimensional assessment of parenting scale (MAPS). Unpublished rating scale, University of Vermont, Burlington.Google Scholar
  61. Parent, J., McKee, L. G., Rough, J. N., & Forehand, R. (2015a). The association of parent mindfulness with parenting and youth psychopathology across three developmental stages. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-9978-x.
  62. Parent, J., McKee, L. G., & Forehand, R. (2015b). Seesaw discipline: The interactive effect of harsh and lax discipline on youth psychological adjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0244-1.
  63. Perepletchikova, F., & Kazdin, A. E. (2004). Assessment of parenting practices related to conduct problems: Development and validation of the Management of Children’s Behavior Scale. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 385–403. doi: 10.1023/B:JCFS.0000044723.45902.70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Petersen, A. C., Crockett, L., Richards, M., & Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 117–133. doi: 10.1007/BF01537962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Reardon, L. E., Leen-Feldner, E. W., & Hayward, C. (2009). A critical review of the empirical literature on the relation between anxiety and puberty. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(1), 1–23. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77, 819–830. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1995.77.3.819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rudolph, K. D. (2002). Gender differences in emotional responses to interpersonal stress during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 3–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rudolph, K. D., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2010). Personal-accentuation and contextual-amplification models of pubertal timing: predicting youth depression. Development and Psychopathology, 22(2), 433–451. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000167.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Lambert, S. F., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2014). Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4 Pt 2), 1423–1444. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Schaefer, E. S. (1965). Children’s reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development. doi: 10.2307/1126465.Google Scholar
  71. Schludermann, S., & Schludermann, E. (1988). Questionnaire for children and youth (CRPBI-30). Unpublished manuscript, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  72. Shapiro, D. N., Chandler, J., & Mueller, P. A. (2013). Using Mechanical Turk to study clinical populations. Clinical Psychological Science, 1(2), 213–220. doi: 10.1177/2167702612469015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Skoog, T., & Stattin, H. (2014). Why and under what contextual conditions do early-maturing girls develop problem behaviors? Child Development Perspectives, 8(3), 158–162. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, A. E., & Powers, S. I. (2009). Off-time pubertal timing predicts physiological reactivity to post-puberty interpersonal stress. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(3), 441–458. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00602.x.Off-time.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Snyder, J., Bullard, L., Wagener, A., Leong, P. K., Snyder, J., & Jenkins, M. (2009). Childhood anxiety and depressive symptoms: trajectories, relationship, and association with subsequent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(6), 837–849. doi: 10.1080/15374410903258959.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sontag, L. M., Graber, J. A., & Clemans, K. H. (2011). The role of peer stress and pubertal timing on symptoms of psychopathology during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(10), 1371–1382. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9620-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1111/1532-7795.00001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Susman, E. J., & Dorn, L. D. (2009). Puberty: Its role in development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 116–151). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  80. Teunissen, H. A., Adelman, C. B., Prinstein, M. J., Spijkerman, R., Poelen, E. A. P., Engels, R. C. M. E., et al. (2010). The interaction between pubertal timing and peer popularity for boys and girls: An integration of biological and interpersonal perspectives on adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9467-1.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Wasserman, R. M., Holmbeck, G. N., Lennon, J. M., & Amaro, C. M. (2012). A longitudinal assessment of early pubertal timing as a predictor of psychosocial changes in adolescent girls with and without spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37(7), 755–768. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Weingarden, H., & Renshaw, K. D. (2012). Early and late perceived pubertal timing as risk factors for anxiety disorders in adult women. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(11), 1524–1529. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.07.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey P. Winer
    • 1
  • Justin Parent
    • 2
  • Rex Forehand
    • 2
  • Nicole Lafko Breslend
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstAmherstUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological ScienceUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations