Interactive Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Early Pubertal Timing on Youth Depression and Anxiety: Contextual Amplification in Family and Peer Environments
- 930 Downloads
While off-time pubertal development has emerged as a potential risk factor for both symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth, the literature is mixed and inconsistent as to (1) how early versus late pubertal timing confers risk for both boys and girls, (2) if the conferred risk is distinct between symptoms of anxiety and depression, and (3) under what social contexts (e.g., family environment, peer relationships) off-time pubertal development may emerge as a potent risk factor for these symptoms. The present study examined the impact of perceived pubertal timing on symptoms of anxiety and depression in two distinct psychosocial contexts: parent’s perceptions of their own harsh parenting and parent’s perceptions of their child’s peer problems. The sample consisted of 412 parents (M = 38.6 years old, SD = 7.8, 60.4 % mothers) of children between the ages of 8 and 17 (M = 12.13, SD = 2.97, 45.4 % girls). All constructs were assessed by parent reports. Linear multiple regression analyses revealed that the interaction between earlier pubertal timing and greater peer problems was significantly related to higher youth depressive and anxiety symptoms. The interaction between earlier pubertal timing and greater harsh discipline was significantly related to higher youth anxiety but not depressive symptoms. Youth gender did not qualify findings. Results suggest that the contextual amplification process of early pubertal timing may occur in both high stress family and peer environments and impact both girls and boys.
KeywordsPubertal timing Youth anxiety Youth depression Peer problems Harsh parenting
This research was supported by the Child and Adolescent Psychology Training and Research, Inc (CAPTR). Justin Parent is supported by NICHD F31HD082858. Rex Forehand is supported by RO1HD064723 and R01MH100377. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Bjornsdotter, A., Enebrink, P., & Ghaderi, A. (2013). Psychometric properties of online administered parental strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7, 40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Block, J. H. (1965). The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): A set of Q items for the description of parental socialization attitudes and values.Google Scholar
- Blumenthal, H., Leen-Feldner, E. W., Trainor, C. D., Babson, K., & Bunaciu, L. (2009). Interactive roles of pubertal timing and peer relations in predicting social anxiety symptoms among touth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 401–403. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bourdon, K. H., Goodman, R., Rae, D. S., Simpson, G., & Koretz, D. S. (2005). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. normative data and psychometric properties. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(6), 557–564. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000159157.57075.c8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chorpita, B., & Ebesutani, C. (2014). Revised children’s anxiety and depression scale user’s guide. Unpublished Users Guide, University of California, Los Angeles. http://www.childfirst.ucla.edu/RCADSUsersGuide20140711.pdf.
- Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deardorff, J., Ekwaru, J. P., Kushi, L. H., Ellis, B. J., Greenspan, L. C., Mirabedi, A., et al. (2011). Father absence, body mass index, and pubertal timing in girls: Differential effects by family income and ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(5), 441–447. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.07.032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Frick, P. J. (1991). The Alabama parenting questionnaire. Unpublished rating scale, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
- Ge, X., Kim, I. J., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., et al. (2003). It’s about timing and change: Pubertal transition effects on symptoms of major depression among African American youths. Developmental Psychology, 39(3), 430–439. doi: 10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, E. J., Georgiades, K., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2012). Prevalence, persistence, and socio-demographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 372–380.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Marceau, K., Ram, N., Houts, R. M., Grimm, K. J., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Individual differences in boys’ and girls’ timing and tempo of puberty: Modeling development with nonlinear growth models. Developmental Psychology, 47(5), 1389–1409. doi: 10.1037/a0023838.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- McEachern, A. D., Dishion, T. J., Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2012). Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a self-report parenting measure. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 498–511. doi: 10.1007/s10826-011-9503y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- McKee, L. G., Jones, D. J., Forehand, R., & Cuellar, J. (2013). Assessment of parenting style, parenting relationships, and other parenting variables. In D. Saklofski (Ed.), Handbook of psychological assessment of children and adolescents (pp. 788–921). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Murray-Close, D., Nelson, D. A., Ostrov, J. M., Casas, J. F., & Crick, N. R. (2016). Relational aggression: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, volume four, genes and environment. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
- Parent, J. & Forehand, R. (2014). Multidimensional assessment of parenting scale (MAPS). Unpublished rating scale, University of Vermont, Burlington.Google Scholar
- Parent, J., McKee, L. G., Rough, J. N., & Forehand, R. (2015a). The association of parent mindfulness with parenting and youth psychopathology across three developmental stages. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-9978-x.
- Parent, J., McKee, L. G., & Forehand, R. (2015b). Seesaw discipline: The interactive effect of harsh and lax discipline on youth psychological adjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0244-1.
- Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Lambert, S. F., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2014). Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4 Pt 2), 1423–1444. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Schludermann, S., & Schludermann, E. (1988). Questionnaire for children and youth (CRPBI-30). Unpublished manuscript, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
- Snyder, J., Bullard, L., Wagener, A., Leong, P. K., Snyder, J., & Jenkins, M. (2009). Childhood anxiety and depressive symptoms: trajectories, relationship, and association with subsequent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(6), 837–849. doi: 10.1080/15374410903258959.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Susman, E. J., & Dorn, L. D. (2009). Puberty: Its role in development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 116–151). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Teunissen, H. A., Adelman, C. B., Prinstein, M. J., Spijkerman, R., Poelen, E. A. P., Engels, R. C. M. E., et al. (2010). The interaction between pubertal timing and peer popularity for boys and girls: An integration of biological and interpersonal perspectives on adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9467-1.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wasserman, R. M., Holmbeck, G. N., Lennon, J. M., & Amaro, C. M. (2012). A longitudinal assessment of early pubertal timing as a predictor of psychosocial changes in adolescent girls with and without spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37(7), 755–768. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar