Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 11, pp 3383–3395 | Cite as

Parent Depression and Anger in Peer-Delivered Parent Support Services

  • S. Serene Olin
  • Sa Shen
  • James Rodriguez
  • Marleen Radigan
  • Geraldine Burton
  • Kimberly E. Hoagwood
Original Paper


Knowledge about parents who seek peer-delivered parent support services in children’s mental health is limited. In this prospective study, characteristics of 124 parents who sought peer parent advocate services related to their children’s behavioral difficulties are described. This urban sample consisted primarily of low-income mothers of color, 80 % of whom were caring for children with clinically significant behavioral problems. Of these parents, 64 % endorsed clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms at baseline. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine associations between parent depression and anger expression with working alliances with peer advocates. No independent or combined effects of parent depression or anger expression on working alliance were found. However, adjusting for family demographic factors, caregiver strain and child symptoms, parent depression interacted with anger expression to influence working alliances, primarily around agreement and mutual engagement on goals. Among parents who endorsed clinically significant depressive symptoms, anger expression did not influence working alliance but among non-depressed parents, anger expression was negatively associated with working alliance. Implications for training peer parent advocates to more effectively engage low income parents are discussed.


Peer parent services Depression Anger expression Child mental health Working alliance 



This manuscript was funded through the National Institute of Mental Health Grants R34MH071745, P20MH078178, and R34MH074774. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Barbara J Burns for her input on drafts of this manuscript.


  1. Acri, M., Olin, S. S., Burton, G., Herman, R., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2013). Innovations in the identification and referral of mothers at risk for depression: Development of a peer-to-peer model. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 837–884. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9736-z.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainbinder, J. G., Blanchard, L. W., Singer, G. H. S., Sullivan, M. E., Powers, L. K., Marquis, J. G., & Santelli, B. (1998). A qualitative study of parent to parent support for parents of children with special needs. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23, 99–109. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/23.2.99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, R. (1995). Revisiting the behavior model and access to care: Does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnow, B. A., Steidtmann, D., Blasey, C., Manber, R., Constantino, M. J., Klein, D. N., et al. (2013). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in two distinct psychotherapies for chronic depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 627–638.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber, J. P., Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Thase, M. E., Weiss, R., Frank, A., et al. (1999). Therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome in treatment of cocaine dependence. Psychotherapy Research, 9, 54–73. doi: 10.1080/10503309912331332591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bickman, L., Foster, E. M., & Lambert, E. W. (1996). Who gets hospitalized in a continuum of care? Journal of the America Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 74–80. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199601000-00015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bickman, L., Lambert, E. W., Andrade, A. R., Salzer, M. S., & Foster, E. M. (1998). Dose Effect in Children’s Mental Health Services. (Final Report to the US Army MEDCOM, contract DA-DA-10–96-C-030). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.Google Scholar
  8. Brandenburg, N. A., Friedman, R. M., & Silver, S. E. (1990). The epidemiology of childhood psychiatric disorders: Prevalence findings from recent studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 76–83. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199001000-00013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brannan, A., & Heflinger, C. (2001). Distinguishing caregiver strain from psychological distress; Modeling the relationships among child, family, and caregiver variables. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 405–418. doi: 10.1023/A:1016705306848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brannan, A. M., Heflinger, C. A., & Bickman, L. (1997). The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire: Measuring the impact of living with a child with serious emotional disturbance. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 5, 212–222. doi: 10.1177/106342669700500404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broome, K. M., Simpson, D. D., & Joe, G. W. (1999). Patient and program attributes related to treatment process indicators in DATOS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 57, 127–135. doi: 10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00080-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruns, E. J., Hoagwood, K. E., Rivard, J. C., Wotring, J., Marsenich, L., & Carter, B. (2008). State implementation of evidence-based practice for youths, Part II: Recommendations for research and policy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 499–504. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181684557.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000127590.95585.65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Centre for Community Child Health (2010). Engaging marginalised and vulnerable families. (CCCH Policy Brief No. 18). Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s Hospital. Retrieved from,
  15. Constantino, M. J., Marnell, M. E., Haile, A. J., Kanther-Sista, S. N., Wolman, K., Zappert, L., & Arnow, B. (2008). Integrative cognitive therapy for depression: A randomized pilot comparison. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45, 122–134. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.45.2.122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper, J. L., Aratani, Y., Knitzer, J., Douglas-Hall, A., Masi, R., Banghart, P., & Dababnah, S. (2008). Unclaimed children revisited: The status of children’s mental health policy in the United States. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  17. Costello, E. J., Pescosolido, B. A., Angold, A., & Burns, B. J. (1998). A family network-based model of access to child mental health services. Research in Community and Mental Health, 9, 165–190.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, T. S., Gavazzi, S. M., Scheer, S. D., Kwon, I. A., Lammers, A., Fristad, M. A., & Uppal, R. (2011a). Measuring family caregiver perceptions of support in caring for children and youth with mental health concerns. Journal of Social Service Research, 37, 500–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, T. S., Gavazzi, S. M., Scheer, S. D., & Uppal, R. (2011b). Measuring individualized parent advocate services in children’s mental health: A contextualized theoretical application. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 669–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, T. S., Scheer, S. D., Gavazzi, S. M., & Uppal, R. (2010). Parent advocates in children’s mental health: Program implementation processes and considerations. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37, 468–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. DiGiuseppe, R., Linscott, J., & Jilton, R. (1996). Developing the therapeutic alliance in child—adolescent psychotherapy. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DiGiuseppe, R., & Tafrate, R. C. (2001). A comprehensive treatment model for anger disorders. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38, 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DiGiuseppe, R., & Tafrate, R. (2007). Understanding anger disorders. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. DiGiuseppe, R., Tafrate, R., & Eckhardt, C. (1994). Critical issues in the treatment of anger. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 1, 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Donner, R. (2003) Moving forward together: Building culturally effective partnerships between families and professionals. Topeka, KS.Google Scholar
  26. Foster, E. M., Saunders, R., & Summerfelt, W. T. (1996). Predicting level of care in mental health services under a continuum of care. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19, 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ganju, V. (2003). Implementation of evidence-based practices in state mental health systems: Implications for research and effectiveness studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 125–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Garcia, J. A., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). When youth mental health care stops: Therapeutic relationship problems and other reasons for ending youth outpatient treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 439–443. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.70.2.439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gopalan, G., Dean-Assael, K., Klingenstein, K., Chacko, A., & McKay, M. (2011). Caregiver depression and youth disruptive behavior difficulties. Social Work in Mental Health, 9, 56–70. doi: 10.1080/15332985.2010.494528.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gopalan, G., Goldstein, L., Klingenstein, K., Sicher, C., Blake, C., & McKay, M. (2010). Engaging families into child mental health treatment: Updates and special considerations. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 182–196.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gyamfi, P., Walrath, C., Burns, B. J., Stephens, R. L., Geng, Y., & Stambaugh, L. (2010). Family education and support services in systems of care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18, 14–26. doi: 10.1177/1063426609333891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoagwood, K. E. (2005). Family-based services in children’s mental health: A research review and synthesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 690–713. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01451.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoagwood, K. E., Cavaleri, M. A., Olin, S. S., Burns, B. J., Slaton, E., Gruttadaro, D., & Hughes, R. (2010). Family support in children’s mental health: A review and synthesis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 1–45. doi: 10.1007/s10567-009-0060-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hodges, K., & Wong, M. M. (1997). Use of the child and adolescent functional assessment scale to predict service utilization and costs. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 24, 278–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Horvath, A. O., & Luborsky, L. (1993). The role of therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. [Special Section]. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 561–573. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.61.4.561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Horwitz, S. M., Briggs-Gowan, M., Storfer-Isser, A., & Carter, A. S. (2007). Prevalence, correlates, and persistence of maternal depression. Journal of Women’s Health, 16, 678–691.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L., & Miller, S. D. (Eds.). (1999). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  40. Ireys, H. T., Chernoff, R., DeVet, K. A., & Kim, Y. (2001a). Maternal outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a community-based support program for families of children with chronic illness. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 771–777. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.155.7.771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ireys, H. T., Chernoff, R., Stein, R. E. K., DeVet, K. A., & Silver, E. (2001b). Outcomes of community-based family-to-family support: Lessons learned from a decade of randomized trials. Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 4, 201–216. doi: 10.1207/S15326918CS0404_04.Google Scholar
  42. Ireys, H. T., Sills, E. M., Kolodner, K. B., & Walsh, B. B. (1996). A social support intervention for parents of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Results of a randomized trial. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 633–641. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/21.5.633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Joe, G. W., Simpson, D. D., Dansereau, D. F., & Rowan-Szal, G. A. (2001). Relationships between counseling rapport and drug abuse treatment outcomes. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1223–1229. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  44. Kazdin, A. E., Holland, L., & Crowley, M. (1997). Family experience of barriers to treatment and premature termination from child therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 453–463. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kerkorian, D., McKay, M., & Bannon, W. M, Jr. (2006). Seeking help a second time: Parents’/caregivers’ characterizations of previous experiences with mental health services for their children and perceptions of barriers to future use. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 161–166. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.2.161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Knitzer, J. (1982). Unclaimed children: The failure of public responsibility to children and adolescents in need of mental health services. Washington, DC: The Children’s Defense Fund.Google Scholar
  47. Koren, P. E., Paulson, R. I., Kinney, R. F., Yatchmenoff, D. K., Gordon, L. J., & DeChillo, N. (1997). Service coordination in children’s mental health: An empirical study from the caregiver’s perspective. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 5, 162–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koroloff, N. M., Elliott, D. J., Koren, P. E., & Friesen, B. J. (1994). Connecting low-income families to mental health services: The role of the family associate. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 240–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Koroloff, N. M., Elliott, D. J., Koren, P. E., & Friesen, B. J. (1996). Connecting low-income families to mental health services: An outcome study. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 2–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kruzich, J. M., Jivanjee, P., Robinson, A., & Friesen, B. J. (2003). Family caregivers’ perceptions of barriers to and supports of participation in their children’s out-of-home treatment. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1513–1518. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  51. Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., Green, A. L., & Ferron, J. (2010). Supporting parents who have youth with emotional disturbances through a parent-to-parent support program: A proof of concept study using random assignment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38, 412–427. doi: 10.1007/s10488-010-0329-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lambert, E. W., Brannan, A. M., Heflinger, C. A., Breda, C., & Bickman, L. (1998). Common patterns of service use in children’s mental health. Evaluation and Program Planning, 21, 47–57. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7189(97)00044-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Martin, D., Garske, J., & Davis, M. (2000). Relation of therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 438–450. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.68.3.438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Marziali, E., & Alexander, L. (1991). The power of the therapeutic relationship. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 383–391. doi: 10.1037/h0079268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McCabe, K. M. (2002). Factors that predict premature termination among Mexican-American children in outpatient psychotherapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(3), 347–359. doi: 10.1023/A:1016876224388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Hough, R. L., Landsverk, J., Huriburt, M. S., Culver, S. W., et al. (1999). Racial/ethnic representation across five public sectors of care for youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 7, 72–82. doi: 10.1177/106342669900700202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meier, P. S., Barrowclough, C., & Donmall, M. C. (2005). The role of the therapeutic alliance in the treatment of substance misuse: A critical review of the literature. Addiction, 100, 304–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00935.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Moltu, C., Binder, P. E., & Stige, B. (2012). Collaborating with the client: Skilled psychotherapists’ experiences of the client’s agency as a premise for their own contribution in difficult therapies ending well. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 22, 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olatunji, B. O., Sawchuk, C. N., Lohr, J. M., & de Jong, P. J. (2004). Disgust domains in the prediction of contamination fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 93–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Osher, T., Penn, M., & Spencer, S. (2008). Partnerships with families for family driven systems of care. In B. A. Stroul & G. M. Blau (Eds.), The system of care handbook (pp. 249–273). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  61. Peer Technical Assistance Network. (2000). Learning from colleagues: Family/professional partnerships (second printing). Alexandria, VA: Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health.Google Scholar
  62. Pellerin, K. A., Costa, N. M., Weems, C. F., & Dalton, R. F. (2010). An examination of treatment completers and non-completers at a child and adolescent community mental health clinic. Community Mental Health Journal, 46, 273–281. doi: 10.1007/s10597-009-9285-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Petry, N. M., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Therapeutic alliance and psychiatric severity as predictors of completion of treatment for opioid dependence. Psychiatric Services, 50, 219–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pitt, V., Lowe, D., Hill, S., Prictor, M., Hetrick, S. E., Ryan, R., & Berends, L. (2013). Consumer-providers of care for adult clients of statutory mental health services. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004807.pub2.
  65. Radigan, M., Wang, R., Chen, Y., & Xiang, J. (2014). Youth and caregiver access to peer advocates and satisfaction with mental health services. Community Mental Health. doi: 10.1007/s10597-014-9709-8.Google Scholar
  66. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. doi: 10.1177/014662167700100306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodriguez, J., Olin, S. S., Hoagwood, K. E., Shen, S., Burton, G., Radigan, M., & Jensen, P. S. (2011). The development and evaluation of a parent empowerment program for family peer advocates. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 397–405. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9405-4.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Roussos, A., Berger, S., & Harrison, M. (2008). Family support report: A call to action. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Division of Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Child and Adolescent Services. Retrieved from,
  69. Sales, E., Greeno, C., Shear, M. K., & Anderson, C. (2004). Maternal caregiver strain as a mediator in the relationship between child and mother mental health problems. Social Work Research, 28, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Salzer, M. S., Schwenk, E., & Brusilovskiy, E. (2010). Certified peer specialist roles and activities: Results from a national survey. Psychiatric Services, 61, 520–523. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  71. Schulberg, H. C., Saul, M., McClelland, M., Ganguli, M., Christy, W., & Frank, R. (1985). Assessing depression in primary medical and psychiatric practices. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 1164–1170. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790350038008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Spielberger, C.D. (1999). State-trait anger expression inventory-2 (STAXI-2) for PARiConnect: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR).Google Scholar
  73. Spielberger, C. D., Sydeman, S. J., Owen, A. E., & Marsh, B. J. (1999). Measuring anxiety and anger with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (2nd ed., pp. 993–1018). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.Google Scholar
  74. Stiffman, A., Hadley-Ives, E., Dore, P., Polgar, M., Horvath, V. E., Striley, C., & Elze, D. (2000). Youths’ access to mental health services: The role of providers’ training, resource connectivity, and assessment of need. Mental Health Services Research, 2, 141–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stiffman, A. R., Pescosolido, B., & Cabassa, L. J. (2004). Building a model to understand youth service access: The gateway provider model. Mental Health Services Research, 6, 189–198.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stroul, B. A. (1996). Children’s mental health: Creating systems of care in a changing society. Baltimore, MD: P.H. Brookes Pub.Google Scholar
  77. Stroul, B. A., & Friedman, R. M. (1986). A system of care for severely emotionally disturbed children and youth. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, National Technical Assistance Center for Children’s Mental Health.Google Scholar
  78. Sullivan-Bolyai, S., Bova, C., Leung, K., Trudeau, A., Lee, M., & Gruppuso, P. (2010). Social support to empower parents (STEP): An intervention for parents of young children newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 36, 88–97. doi: 10.1177/0145721709352384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sullivan-Bolyai, S., Knafl, K., Tamborlane, W., & Grey, M. (2004). Parents’ reflections on managing their children’s diabetes with insulin pumps. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36, 316–323. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04058.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Swartz, H. A., Shear, M. K., Wren, F. J., Greeno, C., Sales, E., Sullivan, B. K., & Ludewig, D. (2005). Depression and anxiety among mothers who bring their children to a pediatric mental health clinic. Psychiatric Services, 56, 1077–1083. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  81. Swartz, H. A., Zuckoff, A., Grote, N. K., Spielvogle, H. N., Bledsoe, S. E., Shear, M. K., & Frank, E. (2007). Engaging depressed patients in psychotherapy: Integrating techniques from motivational interviewing and ethnographic interviewing to improve treatment participation. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 38, 430–439. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.38.4.430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tracey, T. J., & Kokotovic, A. M. (1989). Factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 207–210. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.1.3.207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tuma, J. M. (1989). Mental health services for children: The state of the art. American Psychologist, 44(2), 188–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; US Department of Education; US Department of Justice. (2000). Report of the surgeon general’s conference on children’s mental health: A national action agenda. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from,
  85. U.S. Office of the Surgeon General, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Center for Mental Health Services (US) (1999). Mental Health. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from,
  86. U.S. Office of the Surgeon General, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Center for Mental Health Services (US) (2001). Youth violence: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from,
  87. Verdeli, H., Ferro, T., Wickramaratne, P., Greenwald, S., Blanco, C., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). Treatment of depressed mothers of depressed children: Pilot study of feasibility. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 51–58. doi: 10.1002/da.10139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava, M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A STAR*D-child report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1389–1398. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.12.1389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Zich, J. M., Attkisson, C. C., & Greenfield, T. K. (1990). Screening for depression in primary care clinics: The CES-D and the BDI. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 20, 259–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Serene Olin
    • 1
  • Sa Shen
    • 2
  • James Rodriguez
    • 3
  • Marleen Radigan
    • 4
  • Geraldine Burton
    • 5
  • Kimberly E. Hoagwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, The Child Study CenterNYU Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.The Center on Health, Aging, and Disability, College of Applied Health SciencesUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  3. 3.McSilver Institute for Poverty Policy and Research, Silver School of Social WorkNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Office of Performance Measurement and EvaluationNew York State Office of Mental HealthAlbanyUSA
  5. 5.The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric ResearchOrangeburgUSA

Personalised recommendations