Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1660–1671 | Cite as

Addressing Ethnocultural Factors in Treatment for Child Physical Abuse

  • Eileen J. Santa-Sosa
  • Melissa K. Runyon
Original Paper

Abstract

This article used an ecological model to identify relevant ethnocultural factors (ECFs) and to suggest intervention strategies targeting these factors within combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy, an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for families at risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Three case vignettes were presented of families of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds, including a multi-racial African American and European American family, an African American family, and an Arab American family, referred to a specialty clinic after an allegation of inappropriate physical discipline or substantiated physical abuse. The vignettes illustrate strategies to address ECFs, including race and ethnicity, immigration, acculturation, religious beliefs, and sociocultural context, related to parental beliefs and practices about child discipline. Intervention strategies presented provide practical guidance for clinicians working with diverse families. The ECFs identified in this paper can also guide future research in selecting relevant variables for empirical studies on the association between ECFs and the primary domains of intervention in EBT for families at risk for CPA.

Keywords

Child physical abuse Cultural contexts Treatment/intervention Cultural competence Evidence-based practice 

References

  1. Abudabbeh, N. (2005). Arab families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 423–436). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, 377–402. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.5.377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 271–285. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.61.4.271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benish, S. G., Quintana, S., & Wampold, B. E. (2011). Culturally adapted psychotherapy and the legitimacy of myth: A direct-comparison meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(3), 279–289. doi: 10.1037/a0023626.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernal, G., Bonilla, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 67–82. doi: 10.1007/BF01447045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernal, G., Jiménez-Chafey, M. I., & Domenech Rodríguez, M. M. (2009). Cultural adaptation of treatments: A resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 361–368. doi: 10.1037/a0016401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borrego, J., Jr., Anhalt, K., Terao, S. Y., Vargas, E. C., & Urquiza, A. J. (2006). Parent–child interaction therapy with a Spanish-speaking family. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13, 121–133. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2005.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyd-Franklin, N. (2006). Black families in therapy: Understanding the African American experience. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Boyd-Franklin, N., Franklin, A. J., & Toussaint, P. (2000). Boys into men: Raising our African American teenage sons. New York: Dutton/Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  10. Brody, G. H., Chen, Y.-F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., et al. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 1170–1189. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00927.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., et al. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000127590.95585.65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Canino, G., & Alegría, M. (2008). Psychiatric diagnosis—Is it universal or relative to culture? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 237–250. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01854.x.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Caughy, M. O. B., & Franzini, L. (2005). Neighborhood correlates of cultural differences in perceived effectiveness of parental disciplinary tactics. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5, 119–151. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0502_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coard, S. I., Wallace, S. A., Stevenson, H. C., Jr., & Brotman, L. M. (2004). Towards culturally relevant preventive interventions: The consideration of racial socialization in parent training with African American families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 277–293. doi: 10.1023/B:JCFS.0000022035.07171.f8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & de Arellano, M. A. (2001). The importance of culture in treating abused and neglected children: An empirical review. Child Maltreatment, 6, 148–157. doi: 10.1177/1077559501006002007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coker, T. R., Elliott, M. N., Kanouse, D. E., Grunbaum, J. A., Schwebel, D. C., Gilliland, M., et al. (2009). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among fifth-grade students and its association with mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 878–884. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.144329.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cummings, J. R., & Druss, B. G. (2011). Racial/ethnic differences in mental health service use among adolescents with major depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 160–170. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.11.004.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. de Arellano, M. A., & Danielson, C. K. (2008). Assessment of trauma history and trauma-related problems in ethnic minority child populations: An INFORMED approach. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15, 53–66. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Arellano, M. A., Waldrop, A. E., Deblinger, E., Cohen, J. A., Danielson, C. K., & Mannarino, A. R. (2005). Community outreach program for child victims of traumatic events: A community-based project for underserved populations. Behavior Modification, 29, 130–155. doi: 10.1177/0145445504270878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. De Von Figueroa-Moseley, C., Ramey, C. T., Keltner, B., & Lanzi, R. G. (2006). Variations in Latino parenting practices and their effects on child cognitive developmental outcomes. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 28, 102–114. doi: 10.1177/0739986305284036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children’s externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32(6), 1065–1072. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.32.6.1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dubner, A. E., & Motta, R. W. (1999). Sexually and physically abused foster care children and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 367–373. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.3.367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferrari, A. M. (2002). The impact of culture upon child rearing practices and definitions of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 793–813. doi: 10.1016/s0145-2134(02)00345-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. L. (2005). The victimization of children and youth: A comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 10, 5–25. doi: 10.1177/1077559504271287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 264–273. doi: 10.1037/a0020026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fontes, L. A. (2005). Child abuse and culture: Working with diverse families. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Griner, D., & Smith, T. B. (2006). Culturally adapted mental health intervention: A meta-analytic review. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43, 531–548. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.43.4.531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Schoenwald, S. K., & Letourneau, E. J. (2005). Caregiver-therapist ethnic similarity predicts youth outcomes from an empirically based treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 808–818. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.808.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hansen, D. J., Zamboanga, B. L., & Sedlar, G. (2000). Cognitive-behavior therapy for ethnic minority adolescents: Broadening our perspectives. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 7, 54–60. doi: 10.1016/S1077-7229%2800%2980007-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hawkins, A. O., Danielson, C. K., de Arellano, M. A., Hanson, R. F., Ruggiero, K. J., Smith, D. W., et al. (2010). Ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of injurious spanking and other child physical abuse in a national survey of adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 15, 242–249. doi: 10.1177/1077559510367938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hong, G. K., & Hong, L. K. (1991). Comparative perspectives on child abuse and neglect: Chinese versus Hispanics and Whites. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 70, 463–475. Retrieved from http://www.cwla.org/articles/cwjabstracts.htm.
  32. Huey, S. J., Jr., & Polo, A. J. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for ethnic minority youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 262–301. doi: 10.1080/15374410701820174.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson, K. F. (2009). Building cultural competence: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions with ethnic minority youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 1192–1198. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Taylor, A. (2004). Physical maltreatment victim to antisocial child: Evidence of an environmentally mediated process. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 44–55. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.1.44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Escudero, P., Tu, W., et al. (2003). A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 311–318. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200303000-00011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lansford, J. E., Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2004). Ethnic differences in the link between physical discipline and later adolescent externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 801–812. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00273.x.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lansford, J. E., Lei, C., Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Oburu, P., Palmérus, K., et al. (2005). Physical discipline and children’s adjustment: Cultural normativeness as a moderator. Child Development, 76, 1234–1246. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00847.x.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M., McCarty, C. A., & Weisz, J. R. (2006). Abusive parents’ reports of child behavior problems: Relationship to observed parent–child interactions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 639–655. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martinez, C. R, Jr., & Eddy, J. (2005). Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 841–851. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.841.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Lau, A. S., & Chavez, G. (2005). The GANA program: A tailoring approach to adapting parent child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 111–129. Retrieved from http://www.educationandtreatmentofchildren.net/.
  41. Meston, C. M., Heiman, J. R., Trapnell, P. D., & Carlin, A. S. (1999). Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: A comparison of European- and Asian-ancestry undergraduates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 139–144. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.1.139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Muñoz, R. F., & Mendelson, T. (2005). Toward evidence-based interventions for diverse populations: The San Francisco General Hospital prevention and treatment manuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 790–799. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.790.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ogbu, J. U. (1995). Origins of human competence: A cultural–ecological perspective. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Rodriguez, J., Umaña-Taylor, A., Smith, E. P., & Johnson, D. J. (2009). Cultural processes in parenting and youth outcomes: Examining a model of racial-ethnic socialization and identity in diverse populations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15, 106–111. doi: 10.1037/a0015510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Runyon, M. K., & Deblinger, E. (2010). How to implement combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy. Stratford, NJ: Child Abuse Research, Education, and Services Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Runyon, M. K., & Deblinger, E. (2014). Combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy (CPC–CBT): An approach to empower families at-risk for child physical abuse. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, E., Ryan, E. E., & Thakkar-Kolar, R. (2004). An overview of child physical abuse: Developing an integrated parent–child cognitive-behavioral treatment approach. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 5, 65–85. doi: 10.1177/1524838003259323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, E., & Schroeder, C. M. (2009). Pilot evaluation of outcomes of combined parent–child cognitive-behavioral group therapy for families at risk for child physical abuse. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 101–118. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.09.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, E., & Steer, R. A. (2010). Group cognitive behavioral treatment for parents and children at-risk for physical abuse: An initial study. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 32, 196–218. doi: 10.1080/07317107.2010.500515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salzinger, S., Rosario, M., Feldman, R. S., & Ng-Mak, D. S. (2007). Adolescent suicidal behavior: Associations with preadolescent physical abuse and selected risk and protective factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 859–866. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318054e702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., & Jarvis, L. H. (2007). Ethnic identity and acculturation in Hispanic early adolescents: Mediated relationships to academic grades, prosocial behaviors, and externalizing symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 364–373. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith, C. O., Levine, D. W., Smith, E. P., Dumas, J., & Prinz, R. J. (2009). A developmental perspective of the relationship of racial-ethnic identity to self-construct, achievement, and behavior in African American children. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15, 145–157. doi: 10.1037/a0015538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Stevenson, H., Davis, G., & Abdul-Kabir, S. (2001). Stickin’ to watchin’ over, and gettin’ with: An African American parent’s guide to discipline. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Swenson, R. R., & Prelow, H. M. (2005). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and perceived efficacy as mediators of the relation of supportive parenting to psychosocial outcomes among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 465–477. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.09.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Thomas, P., & Harker, L. (2003). The skin i’m in: A first look at racism. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.Google Scholar
  56. US Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, ethnicity, Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44243/.
  57. Waldrop, A. E., & de Arellano, M. A. (2004). Manualized cognitive behavioral treatment for physical abuse-related PTSD in an African American child: A case example. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11, 343–352. doi: 10.1016/S1077-7229%2804%2980051-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wong, E. C., Beutler, L. E., & Zane, N. W. (2007). Using mediators and moderators to test assumptions underlying culturally sensitive therapies: An exploratory example. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 169–177. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.2.169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Hough, R. L., Lau, A., Fakhry, F., & Garland, A. (2005). Why bother with beliefs? Examining relationships between race/ethnicity, parental beliefs about causes of child problems, and mental health service use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 800–807. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhai, F., & Gao, Q. (2009). Child maltreatment among Asian Americans: Characteristics and explanatory framework. Child Maltreatment, 14, 207–224. doi: 10.1177/1077559508326286.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CARES InstituteRowan University School of Osteopathic MedicineStratfordUSA
  2. 2.Center for Pediatric PsychiatryChildren’s Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations