Addressing Ethnocultural Factors in Treatment for Child Physical Abuse
- 988 Downloads
This article used an ecological model to identify relevant ethnocultural factors (ECFs) and to suggest intervention strategies targeting these factors within combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy, an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for families at risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Three case vignettes were presented of families of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds, including a multi-racial African American and European American family, an African American family, and an Arab American family, referred to a specialty clinic after an allegation of inappropriate physical discipline or substantiated physical abuse. The vignettes illustrate strategies to address ECFs, including race and ethnicity, immigration, acculturation, religious beliefs, and sociocultural context, related to parental beliefs and practices about child discipline. Intervention strategies presented provide practical guidance for clinicians working with diverse families. The ECFs identified in this paper can also guide future research in selecting relevant variables for empirical studies on the association between ECFs and the primary domains of intervention in EBT for families at risk for CPA.
KeywordsChild physical abuse Cultural contexts Treatment/intervention Cultural competence Evidence-based practice
- Abudabbeh, N. (2005). Arab families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 423–436). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Bernal, G., Bonilla, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 67–82. doi: 10.1007/BF01447045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyd-Franklin, N. (2006). Black families in therapy: Understanding the African American experience. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Boyd-Franklin, N., Franklin, A. J., & Toussaint, P. (2000). Boys into men: Raising our African American teenage sons. New York: Dutton/Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Brody, G. H., Chen, Y.-F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., et al. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 1170–1189. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00927.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., et al. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000127590.95585.65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coard, S. I., Wallace, S. A., Stevenson, H. C., Jr., & Brotman, L. M. (2004). Towards culturally relevant preventive interventions: The consideration of racial socialization in parent training with African American families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 277–293. doi: 10.1023/B:JCFS.0000022035.07171.f8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coker, T. R., Elliott, M. N., Kanouse, D. E., Grunbaum, J. A., Schwebel, D. C., Gilliland, M., et al. (2009). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among fifth-grade students and its association with mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 878–884. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.144329.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Arellano, M. A., Waldrop, A. E., Deblinger, E., Cohen, J. A., Danielson, C. K., & Mannarino, A. R. (2005). Community outreach program for child victims of traumatic events: A community-based project for underserved populations. Behavior Modification, 29, 130–155. doi: 10.1177/0145445504270878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 264–273. doi: 10.1037/a0020026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fontes, L. A. (2005). Child abuse and culture: Working with diverse families. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hawkins, A. O., Danielson, C. K., de Arellano, M. A., Hanson, R. F., Ruggiero, K. J., Smith, D. W., et al. (2010). Ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of injurious spanking and other child physical abuse in a national survey of adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 15, 242–249. doi: 10.1177/1077559510367938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hong, G. K., & Hong, L. K. (1991). Comparative perspectives on child abuse and neglect: Chinese versus Hispanics and Whites. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 70, 463–475. Retrieved from http://www.cwla.org/articles/cwjabstracts.htm.
- Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Escudero, P., Tu, W., et al. (2003). A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 311–318. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200303000-00011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lansford, J. E., Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2004). Ethnic differences in the link between physical discipline and later adolescent externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 801–812. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00273.x.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Lau, A. S., & Chavez, G. (2005). The GANA program: A tailoring approach to adapting parent child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 111–129. Retrieved from http://www.educationandtreatmentofchildren.net/.
- Meston, C. M., Heiman, J. R., Trapnell, P. D., & Carlin, A. S. (1999). Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: A comparison of European- and Asian-ancestry undergraduates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 139–144. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.1.139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogbu, J. U. (1995). Origins of human competence: A cultural–ecological perspective. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Rodriguez, J., Umaña-Taylor, A., Smith, E. P., & Johnson, D. J. (2009). Cultural processes in parenting and youth outcomes: Examining a model of racial-ethnic socialization and identity in diverse populations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15, 106–111. doi: 10.1037/a0015510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Runyon, M. K., & Deblinger, E. (2010). How to implement combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy. Stratford, NJ: Child Abuse Research, Education, and Services Institute.Google Scholar
- Runyon, M. K., & Deblinger, E. (2014). Combined parent–child cognitive behavioral therapy (CPC–CBT): An approach to empower families at-risk for child physical abuse. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Salzinger, S., Rosario, M., Feldman, R. S., & Ng-Mak, D. S. (2007). Adolescent suicidal behavior: Associations with preadolescent physical abuse and selected risk and protective factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 859–866. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318054e702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., & Jarvis, L. H. (2007). Ethnic identity and acculturation in Hispanic early adolescents: Mediated relationships to academic grades, prosocial behaviors, and externalizing symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 364–373. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith, C. O., Levine, D. W., Smith, E. P., Dumas, J., & Prinz, R. J. (2009). A developmental perspective of the relationship of racial-ethnic identity to self-construct, achievement, and behavior in African American children. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15, 145–157. doi: 10.1037/a0015538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stevenson, H., Davis, G., & Abdul-Kabir, S. (2001). Stickin’ to watchin’ over, and gettin’ with: An African American parent’s guide to discipline. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Swenson, R. R., & Prelow, H. M. (2005). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and perceived efficacy as mediators of the relation of supportive parenting to psychosocial outcomes among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 465–477. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.09.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thomas, P., & Harker, L. (2003). The skin i’m in: A first look at racism. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.Google Scholar
- US Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, ethnicity, Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44243/.
- Yeh, M., McCabe, K., Hough, R. L., Lau, A., Fakhry, F., & Garland, A. (2005). Why bother with beliefs? Examining relationships between race/ethnicity, parental beliefs about causes of child problems, and mental health service use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 800–807. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhai, F., & Gao, Q. (2009). Child maltreatment among Asian Americans: Characteristics and explanatory framework. Child Maltreatment, 14, 207–224. doi: 10.1177/1077559508326286.