Non-Child-Related Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavior Problems in School-Age Girls Adopted from China
Parenting has been conceptualized to mediate or moderate children’s adaptation to family stress. Our study expanded the literature to determine, within the adoptive context, how non-child-related family stress (NCR-family stress; e.g., parent’s problems at work) and parenting styles were related to internalizing and externalizing problems in school-age girls adopted from China. Using data from the third wave of a longitudinal study, 651 school-age girls were identified for the current analysis. On average, the girls were 9.3 years old (SD = 2.7) and were adopted at 15.6 months (SD = 13.8). Data on NCR-family stress, parenting styles and child behavior problems were collected from the adoptive mothers using the social problem questionnaire, parenting styles and dimensions questions, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6–18), respectively. After controlling for age at adoption, age, the adoptive mother’s education level, household income, and the girls’ corresponding behavior problems from the second wave of data (2 years prior), we found that that the association between NCR-family stress and the adopted Chinese girls’ internalizing problems and externalizing problems was mediated by authoritarian parenting and moderated by authoritative parenting.
KeywordsParenting style Family stress Adopted Chinese girls Behavior problems Mediating effect Moderating effect
The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Shannon Suldo for her input to the earlier versions of the manuscript.
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.Google Scholar
- Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implications. London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2005). The importance of parenting in the development of disorganized attachment: Evidence from a preventive intervention study in adoptive families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 263–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawabata, Y., Alink, L. R. A., Tseng, W., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Crick, N. R. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles associated with relational aggression in children and adolescents: A conceptual analysis and meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 31(4), 240–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (2001). The parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ). In B. F. Perlmutter, J. Touliatos, & G. W. Holden (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques (Vol. 3, pp. 319–321)., Instruments and index Sage: Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar