Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 895–906 | Cite as

Youth with Oppositional Defiant Disorder at Entry into Home-Based Treatment, Foster Care, and Residential Treatment

  • Crystal Cederna-Meko
  • Steven M. Koch
  • Jacqueline Remondet Wall
Original Paper

Abstract

We explored and compared rates of youth diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) at entry into three broad program types, home-based care, foster care, and residential care. We also explored factors other than an ODD diagnosis that could be associated with program placement, and compared the presence of these factors in youth with and without an ODD diagnosis. Analyses were conducted using data from an ongoing, private-agency led, outcome measurement project. Programs were grouped into low (home-based), moderate (foster), or high (residential) categories, based upon levels of supervision and structure provided. A sample of 9,564 youth admitted into care between years 2005 and 2007 was used. Results suggested the following rates of ODD: 14.2 % overall; 7.9 % for low level programs; 5.3 % for moderate level programs; 21.1 % for high level programs. Rates were significantly different by program level (p ≤ 0.001). Sixty of 65 additional risk factors were also significantly associated with placement by level of program. No risk factors were unique to youth with ODD. Of the significant factors for youth with ODD, 4 were particularly strong: Classification as a child in need of services (CHINS), history of neglect, verbal aggression, and truancy. Youth classified as CHINS and with substantiated or suspected neglect were more likely placed into a moderate level program. Youth with verbal aggression or truancy were more likely placed into a high level program. Results suggested many factors are considered at program entry. Given the potential for poor prognosis and social costs of ODD, results support an individualized approach to placement determinations, with increased attention to symptoms of ODD and associated features at program entry.

Keywords

Oppositional defiant disorder Prevalence Risk factors Youth Program entry 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Auslander, W. F., McMillen, C. J., Elze, D., Thompson, R., Jonson-Reid, M., & Stiffman, M. (2002). Mental health problems and sexual abuse among adolescents in foster care: Relationship to HIV risk behaviors and intentions. AIDS and Behavior, 6(4), 351–359. doi: 10.1023/A:1021152813774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkley, R. A., Guevremont, A. D., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Fletcher, K. E. (1992). A comparison of three family therapy programs for treating family conflicts in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 450–462. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.60.3.450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burke, J. D., Waldman, I., & Lahey, B. B. (2010). Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Implications for the DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 739–751. doi: 10.1037/a0019708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cantwell, D. P. (1989). Conduct disorder. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (5th ed., pp. 1821–1845). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  6. Chavira, D. A., Accurso, E. C., Garland, A. F., & Hough, R. (2010). Suicidal behavior among youth in five public sectors of care. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 15(1), 44–51. doi: 10.111/j.1475-3588.2009.00532.x.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christophersen, E. R., & Mortweet, S. L. (2001). Treatments that work with children: Empirically supported strategies for managing childhood problems. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/10405-000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clausen, J. M., Landsverk, J., Ganger, W., Chadwick, D., & Litrownik, A. (1998). Mental health problems of children in foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 7(3), 283–296. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00116-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doup, D. A. (2009). Reliability of the child problem checklist. Indianapolis: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, B. H., Fisher, P. A., & Zaharie, S. (2004). Predictors of disruptive behavior, developmental delays, anxiety, and affective symptomatology among institutionally reared Romanian children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1283–1292. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000136562.24085.160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farrington, D. P. (1991). Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and later-life outcomes. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 189–197). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Ford, T., Vostanis, P., Meltzer, H., & Goodman, R. (2007). Psychiatric disorders among British children looked after by local authorities: Comparison of children living in private households. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(4), 319–325. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.025023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Foster, E. M., & Jones, D. E. (2005). The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1767–1772. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061424.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heflinger, C. A., & Humphreys, K. L. (2008). Identification and treatment of children with oppositional defiant disorder: A case study of one state’s public service system. Psychological Services, 5(2), 139–152. doi: 10.1037/1541-1559.5.2.139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IARCCA. (2005a). Definitions of the ten broad program types (3rd ed.). Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  16. IARCCA. (2005b). Intake summary. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  17. IARCCA. (2005c). Child problem checklist. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  18. IARCCA. (2005d). Child risk factory survey. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  19. IARCCA. (2005e). Family problem checklist. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  20. IARCCA. (2006). Program definition of outpatient treatment. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  21. James, S., Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M. S., Slymen, D. J., Landsverk, J., Davis, I., et al. (2006). Children in out-of-home care: Entry into intensive or restrictive mental health and residential care placements. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14(4), 196–208. doi: 10.1177/10634266060140040301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koch, S. M., & Wall, J. R. (2012). The IARCCA outcome measures project: Report for calendar year 2011. Indianapolis: IARCCA.Google Scholar
  23. Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., & Loeber, R. (2000). Are attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder developmental precursors to conduct disorder? In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 431–446). New York: Plenum Publishers. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-4163-9_23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leslie, L., Landsverk, J., Ezzet-Lofstrom, R., Tschann, J., Slymen, D., & Garland, A. (2000). Children in foster care: Factors influencing outpatient mental health service use. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24(4), 465–476. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis, E. E., Dozier, M., Ackerman, J., & Sepulveda-Kozakowski, S. (2002). The effect of placement instability on adopted children’s inhibitory control abilities and oppositional behavior. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1415–1427. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1415.Google Scholar
  26. McMillen, J. C., Zima, B. T., Scott, L. D., Auslander, W. F., Munson, M. R., Ollie, M. T., et al. (2005). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older youths in the foster care system. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(1), 88–95. doi: 10.1097/chi.0000145806.24274.d2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Merry, S. N., Hetrick, S. E., Cox, G. R., Brudevold-Iversen, T., Bir, J. J., & McDowell, H. (2011). Psychological and educational interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12, 1–227. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003380.pub3.Google Scholar
  28. Mihalopoulos, C., Vos, T., Pirkis, J., & Carter, R. (2011). The economic analysis of prevention in mental health programs. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 169–201. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Opler, M., Sodhi, D., Zeveri, D., & Madhusoodanan, S. (2010). Primary psychiatric prevention in children and adolescents. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22(4), 220–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Oswald, S. H., Heil, K., & Goldbeck, L. (2010). History of maltreatment and mental health problems in foster children: A review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(5), 462–472. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene: Castalia.Google Scholar
  32. Pecora, P. J., Roller White, C., Jackson, L. J., & Wiggins, T. (2009). Mental health of current and former recipients of foster care: A review of recent studies in the USA. Child and Family Social Work, 14(2), 132–146. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2206.2009.00618.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rauktis, M. E., Huefner, J. C., O’Brien, K., Pecora, P. J., Doucette, A., & Thompson, R. W. (2009). Measuring the restrictiveness of living environments for children and youth: Reconceptualizing restriction. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(3), 147–163. doi: 10.1177/1063426608323371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott, S., Knapp, M., Henderson, J., & Maughan, B. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. British Medical Journal, 323(7306), 191–194. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7306.191.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (2000). Reducing adolescents’ aggressive and hostile behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 154(12), 1248–1257. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.154.12.1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Steele, J. S., & Buchi, K. F. (2008). Medical and mental health of children entering the Utah foster care system. Pediatrics, 122(3), e703–e709. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Taussig, H. N., Clyman, R. B., & Landsverk, J. (2001). Children who return home from foster care: A 6-year prospective study of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence. Pediatrics, 108(1), E10. doi: 10.1542/peds.108.1.e10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wall, J. R., & Koch, S. M. (2012). The IARCCA outcome measures project: Executive summary report for calendar year 2011 and cross-year comparisons. Indianapolis: IARCCA.Google Scholar
  39. Wall, J. R., Busch, M., Koch, S. M., Alexander, G., Minnich, H., & Jackson-Walker, S. (2005). Accountability in child welfare services: Developing a statewide outcome evaluation program. Psychological Services, 2(1), 39–53. doi: 10.1037/1541-1559.2.1.39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wall, J. R., Koch, S. M., Graham, C., & Link, J. (2010). Lessons learned from fourteen years of outcomes: The need for collaboration, utilization and projection. Child Welfare, 89 (2), 251–267. ISSN: 00094021 Accession: 51916844.Google Scholar
  41. Walter, H., Kernandz, P., & Kircanski, K. (2011). Oppositional defiant disorder. In M. Augustyn, B. Zuckerman, & E. Caronna (Eds.), The Zuckerman Parker handbook of developmental and behavioral pediatrics for primary care (3rd ed., pp. 285–287). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  42. Webster-Stratton, C. H. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in head start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715–730. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.5.715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Woolgar, M., & Scott, S. (2005). Evidence-based management of conduct disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(4), 392–396. doi: 10.1097/01.yco.0000172057.71025.68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Crystal Cederna-Meko
    • 1
  • Steven M. Koch
    • 2
  • Jacqueline Remondet Wall
    • 3
  1. 1.Hurley Children’s Hospital at Hurley Medical CenterFlintUSA
  2. 2.Riley Child Development CenterIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.School of Psychological SciencesUniversity of IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations