Criminal Recidivism Among Hong Kong Male Juvenile Probationers
- 650 Downloads
Hong Kong juvenile probationers are scarcely studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the 6-month short-term recidivism rate of 92 male juvenile probationers (aged 14–20 years), with and without controlling for their index crime. Generally, 30% of the juveniles reoffended within the 6-month follow-up period (82 and 18% were adjudicated of a nonviolent and violent offense respectively). Eight personality and psychosocial properties (self-esteem, life satisfaction, social bond, positive and negative affect, impulsivity, pro-offending attitudes, and self-perceived life problems) were assessed in both Wave 1 and Wave 2 periods. Only three properties (negative affect, self-perceived life problems, and self-esteem) yielded significant changes within the 6-month period. Beyond the exploratory analyses, another aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of recidivism in these rarely sampled juvenile probationers. Results indicated that type of crime, onset age of delinquent behavior, frequency of delinquency involvement in the past year, social bond, negative affect, impulsivity, and pro-offending attitudes were significant risk factors for recidivism. These findings highlight the need for social workers and other youth justice personnel to prioritize the intervention resources for juvenile probationers in light of the high estimated lifetime cost of crime for young offenders. Cognitive-behavioral treatment modalities with emphases on family functioning and problem-solving strategies were found to be an effective intervention approach for juvenile offenders. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
KeywordsJuvenile offenders Probationers Recidivism Risk factors Hong Kong Chinese
Our sincere thanks are offered to those young people who have honestly shared their views on their probation sentence and offending behavior. The work described in this paper was fully supported by a grant offered by the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Project No. HKU 442208H).
- Abnernathy, T. J., Massad, L., & Romano-Dwyer, L. (1995). The relationship between smoking and self-esteem. Adolescence, 30, 899–907.Google Scholar
- Anderson, L., & Walsh, J. (1998). Level of service inventory-revised. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- Bonta, J. (1996). Risk-needs assessment and treatment. In A. T. Harland (Ed.), Choosing correctional options that work: Defining the demand and evaluating the supply (pp. 18–32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Branden, N. (1994). The six pillars of self-esteem. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
- Breuk, R. E., Clauser, C. A. C., Stams, G., Slot, N. W., & Doreleijers, T. A. H. (2007). The validity of questionnaire self-report psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality in juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 761–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan, W. T. (1996). Social work and services for offenders. In I. Chi & S. K. Cheung (Eds.), Social work in Hong Kong (pp. 98–111). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Social Workers Association.Google Scholar
- Chui, W. H. (2008). Community sentences. In W. H. Chui & T. W. Lo (Eds.), Understanding criminal justice in Hong Kong (pp. 201–223). Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
- Chui, W. H., & Nellis, M. (Eds.). (2003). Moving probation forward: Evidence, arguments, and practice. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Entorf, H., & Spengler, H. (2002). Crime in Europe: Causes and consequences. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Frude, N., Honess, T., & Maguire, M. (2008). CRIME-PICS II manual (3rd ed.). Cardiff: Michael and Associates.Google Scholar
- Ge, X., Donnellan, M. B., & Wenk, E. (2003). Differences in personality and patterns of recidivism between early starters and other serious male offenders. The Journal of the American Academy and the Law, 31, 68–77.Google Scholar
- Government, Hong. Kong. (1985). Probation of offender ordinance (chapter 298). Hong Kong: Government Printer.Google Scholar
- Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (1998). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial behavior in youth. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department. (2010). Hong Kong annual digest of statistics. Hong Kong: Census and Statistics Department.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Police Force (2011). Hong Kong crime statistics. Available online: http://www.police.gov.hk/.
- Hong Kong Social Welfare Department. (2010). Social welfare services in figures. Hong Kong: Social Welfare Department.Google Scholar
- Kleinbaum, D. G., & Klein, M. (2010). Logistic regression: A self-learning text (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Li, C., Ko, H., Weng, L., Liau, L., & Lu, R. (2002). The development of an impulsiveness scale: Psychometric properties and relation to antisocial personality disorders. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 44, 109–119.Google Scholar
- Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Raskin-White, H. (2008). Violence serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Maller, R. A., & Zhou, X. (1996). Survival analysis with long-term survivors. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Van der Put, C. E., Stams, G. J. J. M., Hoeve, M., Deković, M., Spanjaard, H. J. M., van der Laan, P. H., et al. (2011). Changes in the relative importance of dynamic risk factors for recidivism during adolescence. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Available online. doi: 10.1177/0306624X11398462.
- Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Monetary costs and benefits of crime prevention programs. In M. H. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research, vol. 27. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar