Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 295–302 | Cite as

Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

  • Barbara A. Mowder
  • Renee Shamah
Original Paper


This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for children of differing developmental stages (e.g., infant/toddler, adolescent). SME responses were used to develop the PBIQ-R and related subscales. The resulting 73 item measure provides a psychometrically strong avenue for determining respondents’ parenting behavior values. The measure and corresponding subscales are closely aligned with current parenting theory and developmental literature with respondents indicating the relative importance of a range of positive as well as negative parenting behaviors. Results suggest moderate to strong factor consistency, construct validity, and internal consistency. Findings are discussed relative to parenting theory and research as well as clinical, counseling, and school psychology practice.


Parent development theory Parent measurement Parent questionnaires Parent role Parenting 


  1. Abidin, R. (1995). Parenting stress index (3rd ed.). Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Manual for the CBCL and profile. Burlington: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, D. S., O’Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4(1, Pt.2).Google Scholar
  5. Benjet, G., Azar, S. T., & Kuersten-Hogan, R. (2003). Evaluating the parental fitness of psychiatrically diagnosed individuals: Advocating a functional-contextual analysis of parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(2), 238–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control, Prevention. (2009). Parent training programs: Insight for practitioners. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, Y., & Fine, M. A. (2007). Modeling parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers across the child’s second and third years: Factors accounting for stability and change. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(4), 584–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dallaire, D. H., Pineda, A. Q., Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., et al. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Del Vecchio, T., & O’Leary, S. G. (2006). Antecedents of toddler aggression: Dysfunctional parenting in mother-toddler dyads. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 194–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fox, R. (1994). Parent Behavior Checklist manual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  12. Gardner, F., & Ward, S. (2000). Parent-child interaction and children’s well-being: Reducing conduct problems and promoting conscience development. In A. Buchanan (Ed.), Promoting children’s emotional well-being (pp. 95–127). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Glidden, L. M. & Schoolcraft, S. A. (2007). Family assessment and social support. In J. W. Jacobson, J. A. Mulick, & J. Rojahn (Eds.), Handbook of intellectual and developmental disabilities (pp. 391–422). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Latendresse, S. J., Rose, R. J., Viken, R. J., Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J., & Dick, D. M. (2009). Parental socialization and adolescents’ alcohol use behaviors: Predictive disparities in parents’ versus adolescents’ perceptions of the parenting environment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 232–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lessuck-Namer, C. (1998). Children’s perceptions of parental roles. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, 6258.Google Scholar
  17. Lovejoy, M., Weiss, R., O’Hare, E., & Rubin, E. (1999). Development and initial validation of the Parent Behavior Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 11(4), 534–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mowder, B. A. (2000, March). Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire: An assessment tool for working with parents. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  19. Mowder, B. A. (2005). Parent development theory: Understanding parents, parenting perceptions, and parenting behaviors. Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology, 1, 45–64.Google Scholar
  20. Mowder, B. A. (2009). Manual for Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). Under review.Google Scholar
  21. Mowder, B. A., Guttman, M., Rubinson, F., & Sossin, K. M. (2006). Parenting and trauma: Parents’ role perceptions and behaviors related to the 9/11 tragedy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 730–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mowder, B. A., Harvey, V. S., Moy, L., & Pedro, M. (1995). Parent role characteristics: Parent views and their implications for school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 32, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mowder, B. A., Harvey, V. S., Pedro, M., Rossen, R., & Moy, L. (1993). Parent Role Questionnaire: Psychometric qualities. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mowder, B. A., & Sanders, M. (2008). Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric characteristics. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17(5), 675–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mowder, B. A., & Shamah, R. (2009). Parent assessment and intervention. In B. A. Mowder, F. Rubinson, & A. E. Yasik (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in infant and early childhood psychology. New York: New York.Google Scholar
  26. Reitman, D., Rhode, P. C., Hupp, S. D. A., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rhoades, K. A., & O’Leary, S. G. (2007). Factor structure and validity of the Parenting Scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 137–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77, 819–830.Google Scholar
  29. Rubinson, F. (2009). Consultation. In B. A. Mowder, F. Rubinson, & A. E. Yasik (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in infant and early childhood psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Ryan, R. M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Is one good parent good enough? Patterns of mother and father parenting and child cognitive outcomes at 24 and 36 months. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 211–228.Google Scholar
  31. Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P-Positive parenting program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 506–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The development and dissemination of the Triple P–Positive Parenting Program: A multilevel, evidence-based system of parenting and family support. Prevention Science, 3, 173–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silk, J. S., Ziegler, M. L., Whalen, D. J., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Dietz, L. J., et al. (2009). Expressed emotion in mothers of currently depressed, remitted, high-risk, and low-risk youth: Links to child depression status and longitudinal course. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(1), 36–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sperling, S., & Mowder, B. A. (2006). Parenting perceptions and behaviors: Comparing parents of typical and special needs preschoolers. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 695–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sterrett, E. M., Jones, D. J., & Kincaid, C. (2009). Psychosocial adjustment of low-income Aftrican American youth from single mother homes: The role of the youth-coparent relationship. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 427–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vannest, K. J., Reynolds, C., & Kamphaus, R. (2008). BASC-2 intervention guide. Pearson.Google Scholar
  37. Webster-Stratton, C. (2006). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Key ingredients to implementing the incredible years programs with fidelity. In N. T. Kerby (Ed.), Helping others help children: Clinical supervision of child psychotherapy (pp. 161–175). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2007). Incredible Years parents and teachers training series: A Head Start partnership to promote social competence and prevent conduct problems. In P. Tolan, J. Szapocznik, & S. Sambrano (Eds.), Preventing youth substance abuse: Science-based programs for children and adolescents (pp. 67–88). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pace University-New York CityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations