Modeling drive currents and leakage currents: a dynamic approach
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The dynamics of electrons and holes propagating through the nano-scaled channels of modern semiconductor devices can be seen as a widespread manifestation of non-equilibrium statistical physics and its ruling principles. In this respect both the devices that are pushing conventional CMOS technology towards the final frontiers of Moore’s law and the upcoming set of alternative, novel nanostructures grounded on entirely new concepts and working principles, provide an almost unlimited playground for assessing physical models and numerical techniques emerging from classical and quantum mechanical non-equilibrium theory.
In this paper we revisit the Boltzmann as well as the Wigner–Boltzmann equation which offers a valuable platform to study transport of charge carriers taking part in drive currents. We focus on a numerical procedure that regained attention recently as an alternative tool to solve the time-dependent Boltzmann equation for inhomogeneous systems, such as the channel regions of field-effect transistors, and we discuss its extension to the Wigner–Boltzmann equation.
Furthermore, we pay attention to the calculation of tunneling leakage currents. The latter typically occurs in nano-scaled transistors when part of the carrier distribution sustaining the drive current is found to tunnel into the gate due the presence of an ultra-thin insulating barrier separating the gate from the channel region. In particular, we discuss the paradox related to the very existence of leakage currents established by electrons occupying quasi-bound states, while the (real) wave functions of the latter cannot carry net currents.
Finally, we describe a simple model to resolve the paradox as well as to estimate gate currents provided the local carrier generation rates largely exceed the tunneling rates.
KeywordsWigner–Boltzmann equation Characteristic curves Carrier transport Gate leakage currents
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