Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education
To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90–102 years old, 0–6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90–99 years old). Younger age and being female—but not education—were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms.
KeywordsNeuropsychology CERAD Demographics Nonagenarians Hispanics
This study was funded by a NIH Fogarty International Center & National Institute on Aging grant (R21TW009258), Universidad de Costa Rica, and the Alzheimer’s Association.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Fillenbaum, G. G., Peterson, B., & Morris, J. C. (1996). Estimating the validity of the clinical Dementia Rating Scale: the CERAD experience. Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease. Aging (Milan, Italy), 8(6), 379–385.Google Scholar
- Fillenbaum, G. G., Kuchibhatla, M., Henderson, V. W., Clark, C. M., & Taussig, I. M. (2007). Comparison of Performance on the CERAD Neuropsychological Battery of Hispanic Patients and Cognitively Normal Controls at Two Sites. Clinical Gerontologist, 30(3), 1–22. doi: 10.1300/J018v30n03_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guerrero-Berroa, E., Ravona-Springer, R., Schmeidler, J., Silverman, J. M., Sano, M., Koifmann, K., et al. (2014). Age, gender, and education are associated with cognitive performance in an older Israeli sample with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(3), 299–309. doi: 10.1002/gps.4008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holm, S. (1979). A Simple Sequentially Rejective Multiple Test Procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6(2), 65–70.Google Scholar
- Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos (2013). Estimaciones y proyecciones de población por sexo y edad, 1950–2050 [Population estimates and projections by sex and age, 1950–2050]. San José, Costa Rica: INEC.Google Scholar
- Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S. (2005). The boston naming test. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.Google Scholar
- Newcombe, F. (1969). Missile wounds of the brain: a study of psychological deficits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Nitrini, R., Caramelli, P., Herrera, E., Jr., Charchat-Fichman, H., & Porto, C. S. (2005). Performance in Luria’s fist-edge-palm test according to educational level. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 18(4), 211–214.Google Scholar
- Pontón, M. O., Satz, P., Herrera, L., Ortiz, F., Urrutia, C. P., Young, R., et al. (1996). Normative data stratified by age and education for the Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS): Initial report. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2(2), 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sano, M., Rosen, W., & Mayeux, R. (1984). Attention deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Paper presented at the Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Stricks, L., Pittman, J., Jacobs, D. M., Sano, M., & Stern, Y. (1998). Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4(4), 311–318.Google Scholar
- US Census Bureau. (2012). 2012 National Population Projections: Summary Tables. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.census.gov/population/projections/data/national/2012/summarytables.html
- Wechsler, D. (1987). Wechsler Memory Scale- Revised Manual. (Vol.). San Antonio Psychological CorporationGoogle Scholar