A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults’ Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis
- 262 Downloads
Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10 % of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities.
KeywordsActivity Community mobility Environment Older adults Public transport Roles
We would like to express our gratitude to Mrs. Vinita Acharya, Mrs. Vasanthi Prabhu and Mrs. Sumedha Kamath for validating the questionnaire. We are grateful to Mr. G. Venkataraman and Mr. Vijai Chettiappan for their assistance during translation. We would also like to thank the participants for sparing their time and sharing their perspectives.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Approval for the study was obtained from the local Ethics Committee.
Informed consent for participation was obtained from all participants. Participation in the study was voluntary and confidentiality of identities and data has been maintained.
- Alam, M., James, K. S., Giridhar, G., Sathyanarayana, K. M., Kumar, S., Siva Raju, S., Syamala, T. S., Subaiya, S., & Bansod, D. W. (2012). Building a knowledge base on population ageing in India: Report on the status of elderly in select states of India, 2011. New Delhi: United Nations Population Fund.Google Scholar
- American Occupational Therapy Association. (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework: domain and process (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl. 1), S1–S48.Google Scholar
- Banerjee, I., Walker, J. L., Deakin, E. A., & Kanafani, A. (2010, July). New vehicle choice in India: Household choice among motorized vehicle segments. Paper presented at the 12th WCTR, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
- Beard, J. R., Biggs, S., Bloom, D. E., Fried, L. P., Hogan, P., Kalache, A., & Olshanky, S. J. (2012). Global population ageing: Peril or promise? Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
- Coughlin, J. (2001). Transportation and older persons: Perceptions and preferences. Washington: Centre for Transportation Studies and Age Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Crosbie, T. (2006). Using activity diaries: some methodological lessons. Journal of Research Practice, 2(1), Article D1. Retrieved on 12th March, 2014 from http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/22/42.
- D’Souza, A., Shringarpure, A., & Karol, J. (2008). Circumstances and consequences of falls in Indian older adults. The Indian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 40(1), 3–11.Google Scholar
- Fristedt, S. (2012). Occupational participation through community mobility among older men and women. (Master’s thesis, Jönköping University, Sweden).Google Scholar
- Garg, S., Gayen, A. S., Jena, P., Jose, G. S., Ramamurthy, L., Jiyad, K. M., & Dhanuraj, D. (2010). Study on the autorickshaw sector in Chennai. Chennai: City Connect Foundation Chennai and Civitas Consultancies Pvt Ltd.Google Scholar
- Giri, M., Sabharwal, M. M., Gangadharan, K. R., Sreenivasan, S., & Mitra, P. P. (2011). Draft national policy on senior citizens. Government of India. Retrieved from http://socialjustice.nic.in/npsc.php.
- Global BRT Data, Asia/India. (n.d). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.brtdata.org/#/location/asia/india
- Group for Economic and Social Studies. (2009). Rising crimes against elderly people and responsibility of police in metros. New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
- Hanson, H. M., Ashe, M. C., McKay, H. A., & Winters, M. (2012). Intersection between the built and social environments and older adults’ mobility: An evidence review. Vancouver: National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health.Google Scholar
- Harding, D. J. (1997). Measuring children’s time use: A review of methodologies and findings (Working Paper # 97–1). Princeton University, Bendhein-Thomas Center for Research on Child Wellbeing.Google Scholar
- HelpAge India. (n.d). Age-friendly cities report: Advantages & barriers in Delhi. New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Hemalatha, K. (2013, February 23). Chennai buses burst at seams. The Times of India. Retrieved from http://www.lite.epaper.timesofindia.com/index.asp.
- Hemalatha, K. (2013, October 16). Hard ride for aged in city. The Times of India. Retrieved from http://www.lite.epaper.timesofindia.com/index.asp.
- India Metro Rail Status Map. (2013, January 15). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/metro-rail-projects.html.
- India Transport Portal. India transport news and analysis. (2012). How many vehicles on India roads? Retrieved from http://indiatransportportal.com/2012/11/vehicles-in-india/.
- Jain, M., Saxena, A., Singh, P., & Saxena, P. K. (2011). Developing bus rapid transit system in India. Google Scholar
- Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India. (2010). National Road Safety Policy. Retrieved from http://morth.nic.in/showfile.asp?lid=388.
- National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. (n.d). NIMHANS BISP Fact sheet: Injuries among elderly. New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Oakley, F., Kielhofner, G., Barris, R., & Reichler, R. K. (1986). The role checklist: development and empirical assessment of reliability. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 6, 157–170.Google Scholar
- Population Reference Bureau. (2012). Today’s research on aging: Program and policy implications (Issue 25). Washington, United States of America.Google Scholar
- Rogers, J. C. (1996). Ability and disability: the performance areas. In K. O. Larson, R. G. Stevens-Ratchford, L. Pedretti, & J. L. Crabtree (Eds.), ROTE: The role of occupational therapy with the elderly (2nd ed.). United States of America: American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.Google Scholar
- Saumitra, B., Chakravarty, I., Das, P., & Chakravarty, S. (2010). Reducing the risk of older persons on mobility, transport and road crossing—Reflection from Kolkata megapolis. Paper delivered at The 12th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED), held in Hong Kong on 2–4 June, 2010.Google Scholar
- Situation Analysis of The Elderly in India, June 2011, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Somenahalli, S. V. C., & Taylor, M. A. P. (2007). Elderly mobility: Issues, opinions and analysis of trip making in Adelaide. Proceedings of the 30th Australasian Transport Research Forum.Google Scholar
- Stopher, P. R., & Wilmot, C. G. (2006). Development of a proto-type time-use diary and application in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Transportation Research Record 1768, Paper No. 01–2351, 89–98. Retrieved from http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/
- Tacken, M., Marcellini, F., Mollenkopf, H., Ruoppila, I., & Szémann, Z. (2003). Temporal aspects of the out-of-home activities of elderly people. The international MOBILATE survey: Enhancing mobility in later life. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, Lucerne.Google Scholar
- Wasfi, R., & Levinson, D. (2007). The transportation needs of seniors. University of Minnesota, Centre for Transportation StudiesGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organisation. (2004). Active ageing—Towards age-friendly primary health care. France.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. France.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2013a). Global status report on road safety, 2013. Supporting a decade of action. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2013b). Pedestrian safety: A road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Italy.Google Scholar