Lower blastocyst quality after conventional vs. Piezo ICSI in the horse reflects delayed sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation

  • R. M. Salgado
  • J. G. Brom-de-Luna
  • H. L. Resende
  • H. S. Canesin
  • Katrin Hinrichs
Gamete Biology



The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of conventional and Piezo-driven ICSI on blastocyst development, and on sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation, in an equine model.


In vitro-matured equine oocytes underwent conventional (Conv) or Piezo ICSI, the latter utilizing fluorocarbon ballast. Blastocyst development was compared between treatments to validate the model. Then, oocytes were fixed at 0, 6, or 18 h after injection, and stained for the sperm tail, acrosome, oocyte cortical granules, and chromatin. These parameters were compared between injection techniques and between sham-injected and sperm-injected oocytes among time periods.


Blastocyst rates were 39 and 40%. The nucleus number was lower, and the nuclear fragmentation rate was higher, in blastocysts produced by Conv. Cortical granule loss started at 0H after both sperm and sham injection. The acrosome was present at 0H in both ICSI treatments, and persisted to 18H in significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes (72 vs. 21%). Sperm head area was unchanged at 6H in Conv but significantly increased at this time in Piezo; correspondingly, at 6H significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes remained at MII (80 vs. 9.5%). Sham injection did not induce significant meiotic resumption.


These data show that Piezo ICSI is associated with more rapid sperm component remodeling and oocyte meiotic resumption after sperm injection than is conventional ICSI, and with higher embryo quality at the blastocyst stage. This suggests that there is value in exploring the Piezo technique, utilized with a non-toxic fluorocarbon ballast, for use in clinical human ICSI.


Intracytoplasmic sperm injection Fertilization Oocyte Sperm Horse Blastocyst Acrosome Cortical granules Embryo 



We thank Ms. Kindra Rader and Dr. Josefina Kjollerstrom for excellent technical assistance, and Dr. Roula Barhoumi Mouneimne for invaluable assistance with confocal microscopy.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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