Molecular analysis of DNA in blastocoele fluid using next-generation sequencing

  • Yixin Zhang
  • Na Li
  • Li Wang
  • Huiying Sun
  • Minyue Ma
  • Hui Wang
  • Xiaofei Xu
  • Wenke Zhang
  • Yingyu Liu
  • David S. Cram
  • Baofa SunEmail author
  • Yuanqing YaoEmail author
Embryo Biology



Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) requires an invasive biopsy to obtain embryonic material for genetic analysis. The availability of a less invasive procedure would increase the overall efficacy of PGT. The aim of the study was to explore the potential of blastocoele fluid (BF) as an alternative source of embryonic DNA for PGT.


Collection of BF was performed by aspiration with a fine needle prior to vitrification. BF DNA was subjected to whole-genome amplification (WGA) and analyzed by high-resolution next-generation sequencing (NGS).


A high-quality WGA product was obtained from 8 of 11 (72.7 %) samples. Comparison of matching BF and blastomere samples showed that the genomic representation of sequencing reads was consistently similar with respect to density and regional coverage across the 24 chromosomes. A genome-wide survey of the sample sequencing data also indicated that BF was highly representative of known single gene sequences, and this observation was validated by PCR analyses of ten randomly selected genes, with an overall efficiency of 84 %.


This study provides further evidence that BF is a promising alternative source of DNA for PGT.


Blastocoele fluid Blastomere Next-generation sequencing Preimplantation genetic testing Bioinformatics 



The study was supported by the grant awarded to Yuanqing Yao by the Key Program of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” of the People’s Liberation Army (No. BWS11J058) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program (2015AA020402).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2013-092-02). All embryos donated to research were obtained after obtaining informed written consent by couples undertaking PGS.

Supplementary material

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Figure S1

(GIF 66 kb)

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High resolution image (TIF 852 kb)
10815_2016_667_MOESM2_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yixin Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Na Li
    • 3
  • Li Wang
    • 2
    • 4
  • Huiying Sun
    • 5
  • Minyue Ma
    • 2
  • Hui Wang
    • 2
  • Xiaofei Xu
    • 2
  • Wenke Zhang
    • 2
  • Yingyu Liu
    • 2
  • David S. Cram
    • 6
  • Baofa Sun
    • 5
    Email author
  • Yuanqing Yao
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of MedicineNankai UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyChinese PLA General HospitalBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyAffiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Center for Reproductive MedicineThe First Hospital of KunmingKunmingChina
  5. 5.Beijing Institute of GenomicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  6. 6.Berry Genomics, Co., Ltd.BeijingChina

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