Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 1789–1794 | Cite as

The −2549 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGFA gene in couples with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion

  • Nina Pereza
  • Saša Ostojić
  • Anamarija Smirčić
  • Alenka Hodžić
  • Miljenko Kapović
  • Borut Peterlin



The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is crucial for normal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during pregnancy, and alterations in the VEGFA gene expression were detected in women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA) and spontaneously aborted conceptuses. Our aim was to evaluate whether there is an association between the functional −2549 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGFA gene and IRSA in reproductive couples.


We performed a case-control study involving 149 women and their 140 partners with three or more IRSA and 149 control women and men. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used for genotyping.


We found no association of the −2549 I/D polymorphism with IRSA in women. However, men with the DD genotype have a 1.75-fold increased risk of IRSA compared with men carrying the ID and II genotypes (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–2.93, P = 0.032). In addition, the D allele in men contributes to a 1.42-fold increased risk of IRSA (95 % CI = 1.02–1.97, P = 0.036) compared to men carrying the I allele.


Our results indicate that the −2549 I/D polymorphism in the VEGFA gene in men might be associated with IRSA. Additional genetic association studies including both partners, as well as expression studies, are needed to elucidate the role of this polymorphism in IRSA.


Genetic polymorphism Pregnancy Recurrent spontaneous abortion Vascular endothelial growth factor A 



This study was supported by research grants “Genetic factors in the etiology of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion” (University of Rijeka, Croatia, number and “Gynecology and reproduction: genomics and stem cells” (Slovenia, number P3—0326).

Ethical approval

All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. The study was approved by Slovenian and Croatian National Ethics’ Committees and was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as described in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Pereza
    • 1
  • Saša Ostojić
    • 1
  • Anamarija Smirčić
    • 1
  • Alenka Hodžić
    • 2
  • Miljenko Kapović
    • 1
  • Borut Peterlin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Medical GeneticsFaculty of Medicine, University of RijekaRijekaCroatia
  2. 2.Department of Gynaecology and ObstetricsClinical Institute of Medical Genetics, UMC LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

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