Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 30, Issue 11, pp 1513–1518 | Cite as

The impact of semen quality, occupational exposure to environmental factors and lifestyle on recurrent pregnancy loss

  • Wang Ruixue
  • Zhou Hongli
  • Zhang Zhihong
  • Dai Rulin
  • Geng Dongfeng
  • Liu RuizhiEmail author
Gonadal Physiology and Disease



This study aimed to investigate the effect of male semen quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle on recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).


Information on couples’ occupational exposure and lifestyle was collected using a detailed questionnaire from 68 RPL couples and 63 randomly selected healthy controls. Semen parameters were estimated by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and sperm nuclear status was detected with aniline blue (AB) staining.


Patients in the RPL group had significantly lower viability, normal morphology, and total progressive motility of sperm, and a higher mean percentage of AB staining positive sperm compared with those of controls (P < 0.05). There were no differences in sperm concentration, and motility between the groups (P > 0.05). Significant odds ratio (OR) was found when occupational exposure and unhealthy habits were superimposed (OR: 11.965, P = 0.005).


In addition to standard female factors for evaluating the risk for RPL, the use of male factors should also be taken into consideration. We found that sperm quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle are factors that affect RPL. Consequently, occupational exposure and lifestyle factors should constitute an important section of questionnaires given to patients, and these factors should be evaluated by a clinician or trained staff.


Male factors Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) Semen parameters Occupational exposure Lifestyle Semen quality 



This research was generously supported by a grant from National Population and Family Planning Commission of P.R.China (No.2011-GJKJS-07).

Conflicts of interest

The authors had no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wang Ruixue
    • 1
  • Zhou Hongli
    • 1
  • Zhang Zhihong
    • 1
  • Dai Rulin
    • 1
  • Geng Dongfeng
    • 1
  • Liu Ruizhi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First HospitalJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.The First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

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