Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 29, Issue 8, pp 703–712 | Cite as

Leiomyoma: genetics, assisted reproduction, pregnancy and therapeutic advances

  • Gary Levy
  • Micah J. Hill
  • Stephanie Beall
  • Shvetha M. Zarek
  • James H. Segars
  • William H. Catherino



Uterine leiomyomas are common, benign, reproductive tract tumors affecting a majority of reproductive aged women. They are associated with gynecologic morbidity and detrimentally affect reproductive potential. The etiology of leiomyomas is poorly understood and their diagnosis prior to treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) represents a management dilemma. The purpose of this paper is to review known genetic and molecular contributions to the etiologies of leiomyomas, describe their impact on ART outcomes and reproductive potential, and review alternative therapies and future directions in management.


A critical review of the literature pertaining to genetic component of uterine leiomyomas, their impact on ART and pregnancy and leiomyoma therapeutics was performed.


Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by complex molecular mechanisms. Their location and size determines their potential detriment to ART and reproductive function and novel therapeutic modalities are being developed.


The high prevalence of uterine leiomyomas and their potential detrimental influence on ART and reproductive function warrants continued well-designed studies to ascertain their etiology, optimal treatment and novel less morbid therapies.


Assisted reproductive technologies Leiomyoma genetics Leiomyoma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary Levy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Micah J. Hill
    • 1
  • Stephanie Beall
    • 1
  • Shvetha M. Zarek
    • 1
  • James H. Segars
    • 1
  • William H. Catherino
    • 2
  1. 1.Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentNational Institute of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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