Assisted reproduction outcomes after embryo transfers requiring a malleable stylet
This retrospective case–control study was undertaken to assess the impact of a malleable stylet application on embryo transfer (ET) outcome.
The Wallace malleable stylet was used when the soft inner catheter could not negotiate the internal os during ultrasound-guided ET. Patients having an age ≤37 years, with three embryos replaced were included in the analysis. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were the main outcome measures.
The Wallace malleable stylet was applied in 164 (29.6%) of the 553 ETs evaluated. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate showed a 5.6% (19.4% vs. 13.8%), a 10.8% (41.9% vs. 31.1%) and a 9.9% (37.3% vs. 27.4%) absolute difference, respectively, in favor of ETs not requiring the stylet. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).
ETs requiring stylet are associated with lower implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates.
KeywordsEmbryo transfer Difficult transfer Stylet Assisted reproduction outcome
Conflict of interests
The Authors declare no potential conflict of interest.
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