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Successful pregnancy after recryopreservation by vitrification of one blastocyst developed from a frozen embryo obtained by PESA: case report

  • Adriana Bos-Mikich
  • Marcelo Ferreira
  • Marcos Höher
  • Gerta Frantz
  • Norma Pagnoncelli Oliveira
  • Nilo Frantz
Assisted Reproductive Technologies
  • 74 Downloads

Introduction

The cryopreservation of human embryos in different cleavage stages has been employed as part of assisted reproduction technologies (ART), as it allows the transfer of less embryos and increases the cumulative gestation rate of a couple. Human embryos can be cryopreserved by slow or ultra-rapid freezing and vitrification. For decades, human embryos have been successfully cryopreserved using the slow rate or equilibrium freezing protocols at the 4–8 cell stage and more recently at the blastocyst stage. The freezing process includes ice crystals formation and osmotic and chilling injury, factors that may lead to damaged blastomers and zona pelucida resulting in low embryo survival. On the other hand, vitrification eliminates ice crystals formation and most protocols are very simple to perform. However, some authors consider vitrification an experimental method in human reproduction, largely because of its inconsistent reported survival rates and the variety of solutions,...

Keywords

Blastocyst Stage Freeze Embryo Assisted Reproduction Technology Cleavage Stage Embryo High Pregnancy Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Bos-Mikich
    • 2
  • Marcelo Ferreira
    • 1
  • Marcos Höher
    • 1
  • Gerta Frantz
    • 1
  • Norma Pagnoncelli Oliveira
    • 1
  • Nilo Frantz
    • 1
  1. 1.Nilo Frantz Research and Human Reproduction CenterPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Morphological SciencesICBS, Federal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

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