Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 509–515 | Cite as

Slow and ultrarapid cryopreservation of biopsied mouse blastocysts and its effect on DNA integrity index

  • Amr Kader
  • Tommaso Falcone
  • Rakesh K. Sharma
  • Devna Mangrola
  • Ashok AgarwalEmail author
Fertility Preservation



To evaluate the effect of slow and ultra-rapid freezing on biopsied blastocysts’ DNA integrity.


Forty eight mouse blastocysts were biopsied of which 16 were cryopreserved by slowly freezing and 17 by vitrification. Fourteen intact blastocysts were slowly cryopreserved and 24 were vitrified. Eighteen fresh intact blastocysts and fifteen biopsied blastocysts served as controls. The DNA integrity index of all blastocysts was evaluated using (TUNEL) staining and confocal imaging


Both slow freezing and vitrification of biopsied blastocysts induced apoptosis to a similar extent. Biopsying blastocysts before vitrification resulted in less apoptosis than vitrification of intact blastocysts.


Slow freezing and vitrification are equal options for preservation of biopsied blastocysts as regards the DNA integrity index (DII). Biopsied blastocysts better tolerate vitrification than intact expanded blastocysts.


Blastocyst Vitrification Cryopreservation Media protocol TUNEL Apoptotic index DNA integrity index (DII) 



We would like to acknowledge Dr Hussein Abdelrazik for his assistance in the biopsy procedures.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amr Kader
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tommaso Falcone
    • 1
  • Rakesh K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Devna Mangrola
    • 1
  • Ashok Agarwal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center For Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute and Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

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