Reproduction beyond menopause: how old is too old for assisted reproductive technology?

  • David BanhEmail author
  • Dara L. Havemann
  • John Y. Phelps
Assisted Reproduction



Due to the recent media attention on postmenopausal women giving birth, there has been an increased scrutiny on the utility and safety of assisted reproductive technology in postmenopausal women.


The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the following: 1) the limitations and complications of ART in women of advanced reproductive age; 2) the balance between the welfare of the mother and that of the child; 3) the double standards of advanced reproductive age; and 4) the importance of financial and social support systems and preconception counseling with advanced reproductive age.


When providing in-vitro fertilization services to women of advanced reproductive age, special considerations must be given to ensure the welfare of mother and the child and that the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence are guaranteed.


Ethics In-vitro fertilization Postmenopausal reproduction Child welfare 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Banh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dara L. Havemann
    • 1
  • John Y. Phelps
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics & GynecologyThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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