This study used impedance spectroscopy measurements to extract the electrical properties of phytoplankton cells in suspension. Experimental measurements were acquired, and the single-shell model was applied to extract the specific membrane capacitance, cytoplasm permittivity, and conductivity of assumingly spherical cells in suspension utilizing Maxwell’s mixture theory of a controlled volume fraction of cells. The impedance of suspensions of algae was measured at different frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 10 MHz and impedance values were compared to investigate differences between two types of cells by characterizing their change in cytoplasm permittivity and specific membrane capacitance. Differentiation between healthy control and nitrogen-depleted cultured algae was attempted. The extracted specific membrane capacitances of Chlamydomonas and Selenastrum were 15.5 ± 3.6 and 40.6 ± 12.6 mF m− 2 respectively. Successful differentiation based on the specific membrane capacitance of different algae species was achieved. However, no significant difference was noticed between nitrogen-abundant and nitrogen-depleted cultures.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the support from National Science Foundation under grant No. 1550509 “Isomotive dielectrophoresis for enhanced analyses of cell subpopulations.”
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M. R. J and M. Z. R contributed equally to this work.
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Jett, M.R., Rashed, M.Z., Hendricks, S.P. et al. Electrical characterization of phytoplankton suspensions using impedance spectroscopy. J Appl Phycol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-020-02363-2
- Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
- Cell-in-suspension analysis
- Phytoplankton differentiation
- Cell characterization