Development of phycology in Malaysia

8th Asian Pacific Phycological Forum

Abstract

Phycological research in Malaysia started in the 1900s with the documentation of both freshwater and marine microalgae and seaweeds, especially those with economic importance. Phycological research has grown and matured from initial diversity and ecological studies to DNA-based research which allowed us to venture into the world of algal biotechnology with focus on phylogenetics, genomics and strain improvement. Our research has expanded towards finding solutions to the declining food and fuel resources to be relevant in today’s world of energy and food crises amidst a changing climate. Sustainability solutions are especially relevant and will continue to drive the development of our seaweed industry and the opportunities for establishment of an algal industry in Malaysia. Algal farming offers many opportunities for research and development activities, and great potential, especially due to the abundant tropical sunshine, long coastline, good infrastructure and global connectivities. This paper is a brief account of the development of phycology in Malaysia, followed by some thoughts on future directions. Our research is supported by two very important collections: (i) the University of Malaya Algae Culture Collection (UMMAC) and (ii) the University of Malaya Seaweeds and Seagrasses Herbarium.

Keywords

Algae biotechnology Malaysia Limitation Sustainable solutions Priorities 

References

  1. Ali MM, Sani MZB, Hi KK, Yasir SM, Critchley AT, Hurtado AQ (2017) The comparative efficiency of a brown algal-derived biostimulant extract (AMPEP), with and without supplemented PGRs: the induction of direct, axis shoots as applied to the propagation of vegetative seedlings for the successful mass cultivation of three commercial strains of Kappaphycus in Sabah, Malaysia. J Appl PhycolGoogle Scholar
  2. Anton A, Sato H, Kumano S, Mohamed M (1999) Batrachospermum gomabkense (Batrachospermaceae, Rhodophyta) new to Sabah, Malaysia. Nat Hum Act 4:1–8Google Scholar
  3. Arumugam P (1981) Algal distribution in a Malaysian coral reef at Pulau Bidong Laut. Pertanika 4:99–102Google Scholar
  4. Balasubramaniam V, Mustar S, Mustafa Khalid N, Abd Rashed A, Mohd Noh MF, Wilcox MD, Chater PI, Brownlee IA, Pearson JP (2013) Inhibitory activities of three Malaysian edible seaweeds on lipase and α-amylase. J Appl Phycol 25:1405–1412Google Scholar
  5. Balasubramaniam V, Lee JC, Noh MFM, Ahmad S, Brownlee IA, Ismail A (2016) Alpha-amylase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L. Burman) F.S. Collins and Hervey. J Appl Phycol 28:1965–1974Google Scholar
  6. Barati B, Lim PE, Gan SY, Poong SW, Phang SM, Beardall J (2018) Effect of elevated temperature on the physiological responses of marine Chlorella strains from different latitudes. J Appl Phycol 30:1–13Google Scholar
  7. Basri NA, Shaleh SRM, Matanjun P, Noor NM, Shapawi R (2015) The potential of microalgae meal as an ingredient in the diets of early juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. J Appl Phycol 27:857–863Google Scholar
  8. Becker EW, Venkataraman LV (1980) Production and processing of algae in pilot plant scale. Experiences of the Indo-German project. In: Shelef G, Soeder CJ (eds) Algae biomass. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 35–50Google Scholar
  9. Borowitzka MA (2013) Techno-economic modeling for biofuels from microalgae. In: Borowitzka MA, Moheimani NR (eds) Algae for biofuels and energy. Springer, Berlin, pp 255–264Google Scholar
  10. Burkill LH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2 vols. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol 1, pp 1220, Vol 2, pp 1221–2402 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell PK, Beer T, Batten D (2011) Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae in ponds. Bioresour Technol 102:50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan PT, Matanjun P, Yasir SM, Tan TS (2015) Antioxidant activities and polyphenolics of various solvent extracts of red seaweed, Gracilaria changii. J Appl Phycol 27:2377–2386Google Scholar
  13. Chan PT, Matanjun P, Yasir SM, Tan TS (2016) Oxidative stress biomarkers in organs of hyperlipidaemic and normal rats fed tropical red seaweed, Gracilaria changii. J Appl Phycol 28:1371–1378Google Scholar
  14. Chee S-Y, Wong P-K, Wong C-L (2011) Extraction and characterisation of alginate from brown seaweeds (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) collected from Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 23:191–196Google Scholar
  15. Chen JT, Mustafa EM, Vello V, Lim P, Nik Sulaiman NM, Abdul Majid N, Phang S, Md Tahir P, Liew K (2016) Preliminary assessment of Malaysian micro-algae strains for the production of bio jet fuel. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 152:012042Google Scholar
  16. Chen YW, Lee HV, Juan JC, Phang SM (2016) Production of new cellulose nanomaterial from red algae marine biomass Gelidium elegans. Carbohydr Polym 151:1210–1219Google Scholar
  17. Chin YX, Lim PE, Maggs CA, Phang SM, Sharifuddin Y, Green BD (2015) Anti-diabetic potential of selected Malaysian seaweeds. J Appl Phycol 27:2137–2148Google Scholar
  18. Chu WL, Phang SM, Goh SH (1995) Influence of carbon source on growth, biochemical composition and pigmentation of Ankistrodesmus convolutus. J Appl Phycol 7:59–64Google Scholar
  19. Chu WL, Phang SM, Goh SH (1996) Environmental effects on growth and biochemical composition of Nitzschia inconspicua Grunow. J Appl Phycol 8:389–396Google Scholar
  20. Chu WL, Mohamed N, Phang SM (2003) Fatty-acid composition of some Malaysian seaweeds. Malaysian J Sci 22:21–27Google Scholar
  21. Chu WL, See YC, Phang SM (2009) Use of immobilised Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of colour from textile dyes. J Appl Phycol 21:641–648Google Scholar
  22. Ciniciato GPMK, Ng FL, Phang SM, Jaafar MM, Fisher AC, Yunus K (2016) Investigating the association between photosynthetic efficiency and generation of biophotoelectricity in autotrophic microbial fuel cells. Sci Rep 6:31193PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Crane P (1981) The marine Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae of Penang Islands. Malayan. NATS J 34:143–168Google Scholar
  24. Fisheries Statistics of Malaysia (2015). https://www.dof.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/3073. Accessed 9 April 2018
  25. Flesch A, Beer T, Campbell PK, Batten D, Grant T (2013) Greenhouse gas balance and algae-based biodiesel. In: Borowitzka MA, Moheimani NR (eds) Algae for biofuels and energy. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 233–254Google Scholar
  26. Gan SY, Qin S, Othman RY, Yu D, Phang SM (2003) Transient expression of lacZ in particle bombarded Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 15:351–353Google Scholar
  27. Habib MA, Yusoff FM, Phang SM, Mohamed S (2003) Growth and nutritional values of Moina micrura fed on Chlorella vulgaris grown in digested palm oil mill effluent. Asian Fish Sci 16:107–119Google Scholar
  28. Hessami MJ, Phang SM, Salleh A, Rabie R (2017a) Evaluation of tropical seaweeds as feedstock for bioethanol production. Int J Environ Sci TechnolGoogle Scholar
  29. Hessami MJ, Salleh A, Phang SM (2017b) Bioethanol as a by-product of agar and carrageenan production industry from the tropical red seaweeds, Gracilaria manilaensis and Kappaphycus alvarezii. Iran J Fish Sci (accepted 11 March 2017)Google Scholar
  30. Hii SL, Lip KF, Loh YT, Wong CL (2015) Statistical optimization of fermentable sugar extraction from the Malaysian brown alga Sargassum binderi. J Appl Phycol 27:2089–2098Google Scholar
  31. Ho CL, Phang SM, Pang T (1995) Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in the molecular identification of selected Sargassum species (Phaeophyta, Fucales). Eur J Phycol 30:273–280Google Scholar
  32. Ho CL, Teoh S, Teo SS, Rahim RA, Phang SM (2009) Profiling the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in response to light deprivation. Mar Biotechnol 11:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hurtado AQ, Gerung GS, Yasir S, Critchley AT (2014) Cultivation of tropical red seaweeds in the BIMP-EAGA region. J Appl Phycol 26:707–718Google Scholar
  34. Hussin H, Khoso A (2017) Seaweed cultivation ad coastal communities in Malaysia: an overview. Asian Fish Sci 30:87–100Google Scholar
  35. IATA (2016) IATA 2015 report on alternative fuels. International Air Transport Association, Montreal 50 pGoogle Scholar
  36. Idris A, Loh SK, Lau HLN, Mustafa EM, Vello V, Tan CY, Phang SM (2017) Cultivation of microalgae in medium containing palm oil mill effluent and its conversion into biofuel. J Oil Palm Res 29:291–299Google Scholar
  37. Johnson A (1970) Blue-green algae in Malayan rice fields. J Singapore Nat Acad Sci 1:30–36Google Scholar
  38. Johnson ET, Buhari N, Djawad I, Lim PE, Keil-Loudner E, Vis ML (2014) Diversity of freshwater red algae (Rhodophyta) in Malaysia and Indonesia from morphological and molecular data. Phycologia 53:329–341Google Scholar
  39. Kawaguchi S, Kato A, Masuda M, Kogame K, Phang SM (2002) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. VII. Five species of Rhodophyceae, with the description of Lomentaria gracillima sp. nov. Bot Mar 45:536–547Google Scholar
  40. Keng FSL, Phang SM, Rahman NA, Leedham EC, Hughes C, Robinson AD, Neil RPH, Pyle JA, Sturges WT (2013) Volatile halocarbon emissions by three tropical brown seaweeds under different irradiances. J Appl Phycol 25:1377–1386Google Scholar
  41. Kok YY, Chu WL, Phang SM, Mohamed SM, Naidu R, Lai PJ, Ling SN, Mak JW, Lim PKC, Balraj P, Khoo ASB (2011) Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr virus DNA release from lymphoblastoid cells. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 12:335–334PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Kok YY, Chu WL, Phang SM, Mohamed SM, Rakesh N, Lai PJ, Ling SN, Mak JW, Lim PKC, Balraj P, Khoo ASB (2014) Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells. Arch Biol Sci 66:1009–1024Google Scholar
  43. Kok JML, Jee JM, Chew LY, Wong CL (2016) The potential of the brown seaweed Sargassum polycystum against acne vulgaris. J Appl Phycol 28:3127–3133Google Scholar
  44. Kon NF, Lau WLS, Law IK, Lim PT, Leaw CP (2016) On-site rapid detection of toxic Alexandrium tamiyavanichii: integrating the species-specific hydrolysis probe in insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR). J Appl Phycol 28:2815–2820Google Scholar
  45. Kumano S (1978) Notes on freshwater red algae from West Malaysia. Bot Mag Tokyo 91:97–107Google Scholar
  46. Kumano S, Phang SM (1987) Studies on freshwater red algae of Malaysia VII. Batrachospermum tapirense sp. nov. from Sungei Tapir, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Jap. J Phycol 35:259–264Google Scholar
  47. Kumano S, Phang SM (1990) Ballia prieurii Kuetzing and the related species (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Jap J Phycol 83:1–6Google Scholar
  48. Kumano S, Ratnasabapathy M (1982) Studies in freshwater red algae of Malaysia. III. Development of carposporophytes of Batrachospermum cayennense Montagne, B. beranse Kumano and B. hypogynum Kumano et Ratnasabapathy. Bot Mag Tokyo 95:219–228Google Scholar
  49. Leaw CP, Lim PT, Ng BK, Cheng KW, Usup G (2010) Morphology and molecular characterization of a new species of thecate benthic epiphytic dinoflagellate, Coolia malayensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). J Phycol 46:162–171Google Scholar
  50. Lee KK, Lim PE, Poong SW, Wong CY, Phang SM, Beardall J (2017) Growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains from polar, temperate and tropical freshwater environments under temperature stress. Chin J Oceanol Limnol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-018-7093-x
  51. Lee WK, Namasivayam P, Ong Abdullah J, Ho CL (2017) Transcriptome profiling of sulfate deprivation responses in two agarophytes Gracilaria changii and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta). Sci Rep 7:46563Google Scholar
  52. Leedham EC, Hughes C, Keng FSL, Malin G, Sturges WT (2013) Emission of atmospherically significant halocarbons by naturally occurring and farmed tropical macroalgae. Biogeosciences 10:3615–3633Google Scholar
  53. Lim HC, Leaw CP, Su SNP, Noor M, Lundholm N, Usup G, Kotaki Y, Lim PT (2012a) Morphology and molecular characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) from Malaysian Borneo, including a new species of Pseudo-nitzschia circumpora sp. nov. J Phycol 48:1232–1247Google Scholar
  54. Lim HC, Lim PT, Su SNP, Teng ST, Leaw CP (2012b) Genetic diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana (Bacillariophyceae) from Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 24:1465–1475Google Scholar
  55. Lim HC, Teng ST, Leaw CP, Lim PT (2013) Three novel species in the Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima complex: P. batesiana sp. nov., P. lundholmiae sp. nov. and P. fukuyoi sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), from the Strait of Malacca, Malaysia. J Phycol 49:902–916Google Scholar
  56. Lim PE, Tan J, Phang SM, Nikmatullah A, Hong DD, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2014a) Genetic diversity of Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) in Southeast Asia. J Appl Phycol 26:1253–1272Google Scholar
  57. Lim PE, Tan J, Adibi R and Phang SM (2014b) A guide to Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds in Malaysia. Institute of Ocean and Earth Science (IOES), University of Malaya. pp 81Google Scholar
  58. Lim PT, Leaw CP, Kobiyama A, Ogata T (2010) Growth and toxin production of tropical Alexandrium minutum Halim (Dinophyceae) under various nitrogen to phosphorus ratios. J Appl Phycol 22:203–210Google Scholar
  59. Lim SL, Chu WL, Phang SM (2010) Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101:7314–7322Google Scholar
  60. Lim YK, Phang SM, Abdul Rahman N, Sturges WT, Malin G (2017) Halocarbon emissions from marine phytoplankton and climate change. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:1355–1370Google Scholar
  61. Lim YK, Phang SM, Sturges WT, Malin G, Rahman NBA (2018) Emission of short-lived halocarbons by three common tropical marine microalgae during batch culture. J Appl Phycol 30:341–353Google Scholar
  62. Mamat H, Matanjun P, Ibrahim S, Amin SF, Abdul Hamid M, Rameli AS (2014) The effect of seaweed composite flour on the textural properties of dough and bread. J Appl Phycol 26:1057–1062Google Scholar
  63. Masuda M, Abe T, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (1999) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia I. Six species of Rhodophyceae. Bot Mar 42:449–458Google Scholar
  64. Masuda M, Kato A, Shimada S, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2000a) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia II. Seven species of Rhodophyceae. Bot Mar 43:181–190Google Scholar
  65. Masuda M, Kogame K, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2000b) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia IV. Six species of Ceramiales (Rhodophyceae). Bot Mar 43:569–579Google Scholar
  66. Masuda M, Abe T, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2001a) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. VI. Five species of Ceramiales (Rhodophyceae). Bot Mar 44:467–477Google Scholar
  67. Masuda M, Kogame K, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2001b) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. V. Five species of Rhodymeniales (Rhodophyceae). Bot Mar 44:81–88Google Scholar
  68. Masuda M, Kogame K, Abe T, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM, Daitoh M, Sakai T, Takahashi Y, Suzuki M (2002) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. VIII. Three species of Laurencia (Rhodophyceae). Bot Mar 45:571–579Google Scholar
  69. Masuda M, Uwai S, Kogame K, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2003) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. X. Four species of Dasya (Rhodophyceae), with the descriptions of Dasya longifila sp. nov. and D. malaccensis sp. nov. Bot Mar 46:243–255Google Scholar
  70. Matanjun P, Mohamed S, Mustapha NM, Muhammad K (2009) Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. J Appl Phycol 21:75–80Google Scholar
  71. Mithoo Singh PK, Keng FSL, Phang SM, Leedham EEC, Sturges WT, Malin G (2017) Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH. PeerJ 5:e2918PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Mustafa EM, Phang SM, Chu WL (2012) Use of an algal consortium of five algae in the treatment of landfill leachate using the high-rate algal pond system. J Appl Phycol 24:953–963Google Scholar
  73. Ng FL, Jaafar MM, Phang SM, Chan Z, Salleh NA, Azmi SZ, Yunus K, Fisher AC, Vengadesh P (2014a) Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms. Sci Rep 4:7562PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Ng FL, Phang SM, Periasamy V, Yunus K, Fisher AC (2014b) Evaluation of algal biofilms on indium tin oxide (ITO) for use in biophotovoltaic platforms based on photosynthetic performance. PLoS One 9:e97643PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Ng FL, Phang SM, Periasamy V, Yunus K, Fisher AC (2017) Enhancement of power output by using alginate immobilized algae in biophotovoltaic devices. Sci Rep 7:16237Google Scholar
  76. Ng PK, Lim PE, Phang SM (2015) Small-scale genetic structure of Gracilaria salicornia and its red algal parasite, G. babae (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), in Malaysia. Bot Mar 58:175–187Google Scholar
  77. Ng PK, Lin SM, Lim PE, Hurtado AQ, Phang SM, Yow YY, Sun Z (2017) Genetic and morphological analyses of Gracilaria firma and G. changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), the commercially important agarophytes in western Pacific. PLoS One 12:e0182176Google Scholar
  78. Nor AM, Gray TS, Caldwell GS, Stead SM (2017) Is a cooperative approach to seaweed farming effectual? An analysis of the seaweed cluster project (SCP), Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 29:2323–2337Google Scholar
  79. Norsker NH, Barbosa MJ, Vermuë MH, Wijffels RH (2011) Microalgal production—a close look at the economics. Biotechnol Adv 29:24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Oguri Y, Watanabe M, Ishikawa T, Kamada T, Vairappan CS, Matsuura H, Kaneko K, Ishii T, Suzuki M, Yoshinura E, Nogata Y, Okino T (2017) New marine antifouling compounds from the red alga Laurencia sp. Mar Drugs 15:267PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Ou MC, Yeong HY, Pang KL, Phang SM (2016) Fatty acid production of tropical thraustochytrids from Malaysian mangroves. Bot Mar 59:321–338Google Scholar
  82. Patrick R (1936) A taxonomic and distributional study of some diatoms from Siam and the Federated Malay States. Proc Acad Natl Sci Phila 88:367–470Google Scholar
  83. Periasamy V, Phang SM, Ng FL, Muhammad M, Fisher AC, Kamran Y (2014) Method of fabricating graphene-based/algal biofilm electrode for application in a biophotovoltaic device. Malaysia Patent 2014703632Google Scholar
  84. Periasamy V, Phang SM, Ng FL, Muhammad M, Fisher AC, Kamran Y (2017) Method of fabricating graphene-based/algal biofilm electrode for application in a biophotovoltaic device. PCT Patent Application 2015/050144Google Scholar
  85. Phang SM (1984) Seaweed resources of Malaysia. Wallaceana W33:3–8Google Scholar
  86. Phang SM (1994) New records of Malaysian marine algae. Hydrobiologia 285:123–130Google Scholar
  87. Phang SM (1995) Distribution and abundance of marine algae on the coral reef flats at cape Rachado, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian J Sci 16A:23–32Google Scholar
  88. Phang SM (1998) The seaweed resources of Malaysia. In: Seaweed resources of the world. In: Critchley A & Ohno M (eds). JICA publication, pp 79–91Google Scholar
  89. Phang SM (2006) Seaweed resources in Malaysia: current status and future prospects. Aquat Ecosyst Health Manag 9:185–202Google Scholar
  90. Phang SM, Chu WL (1999) University of Malaya Algae Culture Collection. Catalogue of Strains. Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, University of Malaya. 77ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Phang SM, Chu WL (2004) The University of Malaya Algae Culture Collection (UMACC) and potential applications of a unique Chlorella from the collection. Jap J Phycol 52:221–224Google Scholar
  92. Phang SM, Leong P (1987) Freshwater algae from the Ulu Endau area, Johore, Malaysia. Malay NATS J 41:145–157Google Scholar
  93. Phang SM, Ong KC (1988) Algal biomass production in digested palm oil mill effluent. Biol Wastes 25:177–191Google Scholar
  94. Phang SM, Wee YC (1991) Benthic marine algae. In: Kiew R (ed) State of nature conservation in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Society Publication, Kuala Lumpur, pp 51–61Google Scholar
  95. Phang SM, Yoshida T (1997) Sargassum stolonofolium Phang & Yoshida sp. nov. from Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia. In: Abbott IA (ed) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds vol. 6. California Sea Grant Programme, University of California, pp 61–73Google Scholar
  96. Phang SM, Shaharuddin S, Noraishah H, Sasekumar A (1996) Studies on Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Malaysian mangroves. Hydrobiologia 326–327:347–352Google Scholar
  97. Phang SM, Wong CL, Lim PE, Ooi JLS, Gan SY, Ismail M, Yeong HY, Mustafa EM (2007) Seaweed diversity in Malaysia. In: Chua LSL, Kirton LG, Saw LG (eds) Status of biological diversity in Malaysia and threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp 185–210Google Scholar
  98. Phang SM, Lim PE, Ooi JLS, Yeong HY, Ng WS, Küpper FC (2008a) Marine algae of Perak island, Jarak island and the Sembilan Group of islands in the Straits of Malacca. Malaysian J Sci 27:47–60Google Scholar
  99. Phang SM, Wong CL, Yeong HY, Masuda M (2008b) Marine algae of Pulau Tioman, east coast Peninsular Malaysia. In: Phang SM, Amri AY, Ooi LSJ, Mydin HAJ (eds) Natural history of the Pulau Tioman group of Islands, Monograph Series 1. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, pp 19–34Google Scholar
  100. Phang SM, Lim PE, Yeong HY, Ng WS, Song SL (2010) Marine algae collected during the scientific expedition to Bachok, Kelantan and the islands of Terengganu with one new record, Pterocladiella for Malaysia. Malaysian J Science 29:31–45Google Scholar
  101. Phang SM, Keng FSL, Mithoo Singh PK, Lim YK, Rahman NA, Leedham EC, Robinson AD, Neil Neil RPH, Pyle JA, Sturges WT (2015a) Can seaweed farming in the tropics contribute to climate change through emission of short-lived halocarbons? Malaysian J Sci 34:8–19Google Scholar
  102. Phang SM, Mustafa EM, Ambati RR, Nik Sulaiman NM, Lim PE, Majid NA, Dommange X, Schwob C, Liew KE (2015b) Checklist of microalgae collected from different habitats in Peninsular Malaysia for selection of algal biofuel feedstocks. Malaysian J Sci 34:148–174Google Scholar
  103. Phang SM, Salleh A, Lim PE, Juan JC, Yeong HY, Lai CW, You HC (2015c) A battery separator. Malaysian Patent 2015704790Google Scholar
  104. Phang SM, Yeong HY, Ganzon-Fortes ET, Lewmanomont K, Prathep A, Hau LN, Gerung GS, Tan KS (2016) Marine algae of the South China Sea bordered by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Raffles Bull Zool 2016:13–59Google Scholar
  105. Phang SM, Periasamy V, Ng FL (2017) Algal-alginate film for bio-photovoltaic device. Malasian Patent 2017704358Google Scholar
  106. Pongparadon S, Zuccarello GC, Phang S-M, Kawai H, Hanyuda T, Prathep A (2015) Diversity of Halimeda (Chlorophyta) from the Thai–Malay Peninsula. Phycologia 54:349–366Google Scholar
  107. Poong SW, Lim PE, Phang SM, Gerung GS, Kawai H (2013) Mesospora elongata sp. nov. (Ralfsiales, Phaeophyceae), a new crustose brown algal species from the Indo-Pacific region. Phycologia 52:74–81Google Scholar
  108. Poong SW, Lim PE, Phang SM, Sunarpi H, West JA, Kawai H (2014) A molecular-assisted floristic survey of crustose brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from Malaysia and Lombok Island, Indonesia based on rbcL and partial cox1 genes. J Appl Phycol 26:1231–1242Google Scholar
  109. Poong SW, Lim PE, Phang SM, Sunarpi H, West JA, Miller KA, Nelson WA, Kawai H (2017) Two new species of Mesospora (Ralfsiales, Phaeophyceae) from the subtropical Indo Pacific region. Phycologia 56:487–498Google Scholar
  110. Poong SW, Lim PE, Phang SM, Wong CY, Pai TW, Chen CM, Yang CH, Liu CC (2018) Transcriptome sequencing of an Antarctic microalga, Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) subjected to short-term ultraviolet radiation stress. J Appl Phycol 30:87–99Google Scholar
  111. Prowse GA (1957) An introduction to the desmids of Malaya. Malayan NATS J 11:42–58Google Scholar
  112. Prowse GA (1958) The Eugleninae of Malaya. Garden’s Bull Sing 16:136–204Google Scholar
  113. Prowse GA (1959) Relationship between epiphytic algal species and their macrophytic hosts. Nature 183:1204–1205Google Scholar
  114. Prowse GA (1960) New and unusual flagellate in Malaya. Proc. Centenary and Bicentenary Congress of Biology, Singapore, pp 292–298Google Scholar
  115. Prowse GA (1962a) Diatoms of Malayan freshwaters. Garden’s Bull Sing 19:1–104Google Scholar
  116. Prowse GA (1962b) Further Malayan freshwater flagellata. Garden’s Bull Sing 25:179–187Google Scholar
  117. Prowse GA (1962c) Further Malayan freshwater flagellata. Garden’s Bull Sing 20:105–145Google Scholar
  118. Prowse GA (1969) Some new desmid taxa from Malaysia and Singapore. Garden’s Bull Sing 25:179–187Google Scholar
  119. Prowse GA, Ratnasabapathy M (1970) A species list of freshwater algae from the Taiping Lakes, Perak. Garden’s Bull Sing 25:179–187Google Scholar
  120. Rabiei R, Phang SM, Yeong HY, Lim PE, Ajdari D, Zarshenas GA, Sohrabipour J (2014) Bioremediation efficiency and biochemical composition of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (Chlorophyta) cultivated in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatchery effluent. Iran J Fish Sci 13:621–639Google Scholar
  121. Rabiei R, Phang SM, Lim PE, Salleh A, Sohrabipour J, Ajdari D, Zarshenas GA (2016) Productivity, biochemical composition and biofiltering performance of agarophytic seaweed, Gelidium elegans (Red algae) grown in shrimp hatchery effluents in Malaysia. Iran J Fish Sci 15:53–74Google Scholar
  122. Raeesossadati MJ, Ahmadzadeh H, McHenry MP, Moheimani NR (2015) CO2 environmental bioremediation by microalgae. In: Moheimani NR, McHenry MP, de Boer K, Bahri PA (eds) Biomass and biofuels from microalgae, advances in engineering and biology. Springer, Cham, pp 117–136Google Scholar
  123. Ratnasabapathy M (1972) Algae from Gunong Jerai (Kedah Peak), Malaysia. Garden’s Bull Sing 26:95–110Google Scholar
  124. Ratnasabapathy M, Kumano S (1982a) Studies on freshwater red algae of Malaysia. I. Some taxa of the genera Batrachospermum, Ballia, and Caloglossa from Pulau Tioman, West Malaysia. Jap J Phycol 30:15–22Google Scholar
  125. Ratnasabapathy M, Kumano S (1982b) Studies on freshwater red algae of Malaysia. II. Three species of Batrachospermum from Sungai Gombak and Sungai Pusu, Selangor, West Malaysia. Jap J Phycol 30:119–124Google Scholar
  126. Sade A, Ali I, Ariff MRM (2006) The seaweed industry in Sabah, east Malaysia. Jati-J Southeast Asian Stud 11:97–107Google Scholar
  127. Salleh A, Tajuddin ZM (2006) Phytoplankton of Carey Island. Golden Hope Plantations Bhd & University of Malaya, pp 211Google Scholar
  128. Sato H, Anton A (2000) Freshwater periphytic algae of the Klias and Binsulok Forest Reserves, Sabah. In: Mohamed M et al (eds) Klias-Binsulok scientific expedition. Penerbit UMS, Kota Kinabalu, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  129. Shamsudin L (1992) Lipid and fatty acid composition of microalgae used in Malaysian aquaculture as live food for the early stage of penaeid larvae. J Appl Phycol 4:371–378Google Scholar
  130. Shapawi R, Safiin NSZ, Senoo S (2015) Improving dietary red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex. P. Silva meal utilization in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer. J Appl Phycol 27:1681–1688Google Scholar
  131. Sidik BJ, Harah ZM, Kawaguchi S (2012) Historical review of seaweed research in Malaysia before 2001. Coast Mar Sci 35:169–177Google Scholar
  132. Sim MC, Lim PE, Gan SY, Phang SM (2007) Identification of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker for differentiating male from female and sporophytic thalli of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 19:763–769Google Scholar
  133. Siow RS, Teo SS, Ho WY, Shukor MYA, Phang SM, Ho CL (2012) Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 48:155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Siow RS, Teoh S, Teo SS, bin Abd Shukor MY, Phang SM, Ho CL (2013) Molecular cloning and characterization of GDP-mannose-3′,5′-epimerase from Gracilaria changii. J Appl Phycol 25:1309–1318Google Scholar
  135. Sivalingam PM (1977a) Marine algal distribution in Penang Island. Bul Jap Soc Phycol 25:202–209Google Scholar
  136. Sivalingam PM (1977b) Algal zonation pattern at Batu Ferringhi. I. (Seaward side). Sains Malaysiana 6:153–163Google Scholar
  137. Sjamsiah, Ramli N, Daik R, Yarmo MA, Ajdari Z (2014) Nutritional study of Kapparazii powder™ as a food ingredient. J Appl Phycol 26:1049–1055Google Scholar
  138. Sohrabipour J, Lim PE, Maggs CA, Phang SM (2013) Two new species and two new records of Pterocladiella (Gelidiales) from Malaysia based on analyses of rbcL and coxI gene sequence. Phycologia 52:517–537Google Scholar
  139. Sondak CFA, Ang PO Jr, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Dang DH, Hu Z, Kawai H, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim PE, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang SM, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017a) Carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2363–2373Google Scholar
  140. Sondak CFA, Ang PO, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Hong DD, Hu Z, Kawai H, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim P-E, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang S-M, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017b) Erratum to: Carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2375–2376Google Scholar
  141. Song SL, Lim PE, Phang SM, Lee WW, Lewmanomont K, Largo DB, Nurridan AH (2013) Microsatellite markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of seaweeds in differentiating various Gracilaria species. J Appl Phycol 25:839–846Google Scholar
  142. Song SL, Yong HS, Lim PE, Ng PK, Phang SM (2016) Complete mitochondrial genome, genetic diversity and molecular phylogeny of Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta: Gracilariaceae). Phycologia 55:371–377Google Scholar
  143. Song SL, Yong HS, Lim PE, Phang SM (2017) Complete mitochondrial genome of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta: Gracilariaceae). J Appl Phycol 29:2129–2134Google Scholar
  144. Tan J, Lim PE, Phang SM, Hong DD, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2012) Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta). PLoS One 7:e52905PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Tan J, Lim P-E, Phang S-M (2013) Phylogenetic relationship of Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) in Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 25:13–29Google Scholar
  146. Tan J, Lim PE, Phang SM, Adibi R, Aluh N, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2014) Kappaphycus malesianus sp. nov.: a new species of Kappaphycus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Southeast Asia. J Appl Phycol 26:1273–1285Google Scholar
  147. Tan PL, Lim PE, Lin SM, Phang SM, Draisma SGA, Liao LM (2015) Foliose Halymenia species (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) from Southeast Asia, including a new species, Halymenia malaysiana sp. nov. Bot Mar 3:203–217Google Scholar
  148. Tan CY, Sulaiman NMN, Loh SK, Phang SM (2016) Chlorella biomass production in annular photobioreactor using palm oil mill effluent (POME): effect of hydrodynamics and mass transfer, irradiance, aeration rate and POME concentration. J Oil Palm Res 28:496–509Google Scholar
  149. Tan PL, Lim PE, Lin SM, Phang SM (2018) Halymenia johorensis sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new foliose red algal species from Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 30:187–195Google Scholar
  150. Tang YV, Phang SM, Chu WL, Ho A, Teo SH, Lee HB (2012) Cyclic tetrapyrrolic photosensitizers from Cladophora patentiramea (Cladophoraceae, Chlorophyta) and Turbinaria conoides (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyta) for photodynamic therapy. J Appl Phycol 24:783–790Google Scholar
  151. Tani M, Yamagishi Y, Masuda M, Kogame K, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2003) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. IX. Four species of Rhodophyceae, with the description of Chondria decidua sp. nov. Bot Mar 46:24–35Google Scholar
  152. Tanticharoen M, Bunnag B, Vonshak A (1993) Cultivation of Spirulina using secondary treated starch wastewater. Australasian Biotechnology 3:223–226Google Scholar
  153. Teng ST, Lim HC, Lim PT, Dao VH, Bates SS, Leaw CP (2014) Pseudo-nitzschia kodamae sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae), a toxigenic species from the Strait of Malacca, Malaysia. Harmful Algae 34:17–28Google Scholar
  154. Teng ST, Lim PT, Lim HC, Rivera-Vilarella M, Quijano-Scheggia S, Takata Y, Quilliam MA, Wolf M, Bates SS, Leaw CP (2015) A non-toxigenic but morphologically and phylogenetically distinct new species of Pseudo-nitzschia, P. sabit sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 51:706–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Teng ST, Tan SN, Lim HC, Dao VH, Bates SS, Leaw CP (2016) High diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia along the northern coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), with descriptions of P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 52:973–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Teo SS, Ho CL, Teoh S, Rahim RA, Phang SM (2009) Transcriptomic analysis of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in response to hyper- and hypo-osmotic stresses. J Appl Phycol 45:1093–1099Google Scholar
  157. Teoh ML, Chu WL, Marchant H, Phang SM (2004) Influence of culture temperature on the growth, biochemical composition and fatty acid profiles of six Antarctic microalgae. J Appl Phycol 16:421–430Google Scholar
  158. Teoh ML, Phang SM, Chu WL (2013) Response of Antarctic, temperate, and tropical microalgae to temperature stress. J Appl Phycol 25:285–297Google Scholar
  159. Terada R, Kawaguchi S, Masuda M, Phang SM (2000) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. III. Seven species of Rhodophyceae. Bot Mar 44:81–88Google Scholar
  160. Thangavel P, Sridevi G (eds) (2015) Environmental Sustainability. Role of Green Technologies. Springer, New Delhi 324 pGoogle Scholar
  161. Thevanayagam H, Mohamed SM, Chu WL (2014) Assessment of UVB-photoprotective and antioxidative activities of carrageenan in keratinocytes. J Appl Phycol 26:1813–1821Google Scholar
  162. Tredici MR, Rodolfi L, Biondi N, Bassi N, Sampietro G (2016) Techno-economic analysis of microalgal biomass production in a 1-ha Green Wall Panel (GWP®) plant. Algal Res 19:53–263Google Scholar
  163. Vairappan CS, Phang S (2005) Morphology and halochamigrene metabolite content of Laurencia majuscula (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) from the Spratly Islands. Malaysian J Sci 24:29–36Google Scholar
  164. Vairappan CS, Yen AM (2008) Palm oil mill effluent (POME) cultured marine microalgae as supplementary diet for rotifer culture. J Appl Phycol 20:603–608Google Scholar
  165. Vairappan CS, Ang MY, Ong CY, Phang SM (2004) Biologically active polybrominated indoles in the red alga Laurencia similis from the coastal waters of Sabah (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales). Malaysian J Sci 23:119–126Google Scholar
  166. Vairappan CS, Anangdan SP, Tan KL, Matsunaga S (2010) Role of secondary metabolites as defense chemicals against ice-ice disease bacteria in biofouler at carrageenophyte farms. J Appl Phycol 22:305–311Google Scholar
  167. Vairappan CS, Kamada T, Lee W-W, Jeon Y-J (2013) Anti-inflammatory activity of halogenated secondary metabolites of Laurencia snackeyi (Weber-van Bosse) Masuda in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Appl Phycol 25:1805–1813Google Scholar
  168. Vairappan CS, Razalie R, Elias UM, Ramachandram T (2014a) Effects of improved post-harvest handling on the chemical constituents and quality of carrageenan in red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty. J Appl Phycol 26:909–916Google Scholar
  169. Vairappan CS, Zanil II, Kamada T (2014b) Structural diversity and geographical distribution of halogenated secondary metabolites in red algae, Laurencia nangii Masuda (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales), in the coastal waters of North Borneo Island. J Appl Phycol 26:1189–1198Google Scholar
  170. Vello V, Phang SM, Chu WL, Abdul Majid N, Lim PE, Loh SK (2014) Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition-guided selection of Chlorella strains isolated from Malaysia for biodiesel production. J Appl Phycol 26:1399–1413Google Scholar
  171. Wah TT, Wee YC, Phang SM (1987) Freshwater diatoms of Ulu Endau, Johore, Malaysia. Malay NATS J 41:159–172Google Scholar
  172. Wan Maznah WO (1999) Benthic diatoms in the Pinang River (Malaysia) and its tributaries with emphasis on species diversity and water quality. Int J Algae 1:103–118Google Scholar
  173. Wang JH, Lee JW, Lim LH, Teo SS (2017) Multiplexing detection and measurement of diabetes biomarkers in mice treated with different concentrations of Kappaphycus alvarezii extract. J Appl Phycol 29:2097–2106Google Scholar
  174. Wong CY, Chu WL, Marchant H, Phang SM (2007) Comparing the response of Antarctic, tropical and temperate microalgae to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress. J Appl Phycol 19:689–699Google Scholar
  175. Wong CY, Teoh ML, Phang SM, Lim PE, Beardall J (2015) Interactive effects of temperature and UV radiation on photosynthesis of Chlorella strains from polar, temperate and tropical environments: differential impacts on damage and repair. PLoS One 10:e0139469PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Yamagishi Y, Masuda M, Abe T, Uwai S, Kogame K, Kawaguchi S, Phang SM (2003) Taxonomic notes on marine algae from Malaysia. XI. Four species of Rhodophyceae. Bot Mar 46:534–547Google Scholar
  177. Yeong HY, Khalid N, Phang SM (2008) Protoplast isolation and regeneration from Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 20:641–651Google Scholar
  178. Yeong HY, Draisma SGA, Phang SM (2012) Marine algae collected during the marine biodiversity mini expedition 2012 to Sembilan Group of Islands, Perak with one new record, Parvocaulis parvulus (Solms-Laubach) S. Berger et al. for Malaysia. Malaysian J Sci 31:98–110Google Scholar
  179. Yeong HY, Phang SM, Reddy CRK, Khalid N (2014) Production of clonal planting materials from Gracilaria changii and Kappaphycus alvarezii through tissue culture and culture of G. changii explants in airlift photobioreactors. J Appl Phycol 26:729–746Google Scholar
  180. Yong WTL, Ting SH, Yong YS, Thien VY, Wong SH, Chin WL, Rodrigues AA (2014) Optimization of culture conditions for the direct regeneration of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae). J Appl Phycol 26:1597–1606Google Scholar
  181. Yong YS, Yong WTL, Thien VY, Ng SE, Anton A, Yassir S (2015a) Acclimatization of micropropagated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) in outdoor nursery system. J Appl Phycol 27:413–419Google Scholar
  182. Yong YS, Yong WTL, Ng SE, Anton A, Yassir S (2015b) Chemical composition of farmed and micropropagated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), a commercially important seaweed in Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 27:1271–1275Google Scholar
  183. Yow YY, Lim PE, Phang SM (2011) Genetic diversity of Gracilaria changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from west coast, Peninsular Malaysia based on mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. J Appl Phycol 23:219–226Google Scholar
  184. Yow YY, Lim PE, Phang SM (2013) Assessing the use of mitochondrial cox1 gene and cox2-3 spacer for genetic diversity study of Malaysian Gracilaria changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from Peninsular Malaysia. J Appl Phycol 25:831–838Google Scholar
  185. Yu CH, Lim PE, Phang SM (2013) Effects of irradiance and salinity on the growth of carpospore-derived tetrasporophytes of Gracilaria edulis and Gracilaria tenuistipitata var liui (Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 25:787–794Google Scholar
  186. Yusoff FM, Mohsin AKM, Mustafa Kamal AS (1985) Phytoplankton composition and productivity of a shallow tropical lake. Pertanika 7:101–113Google Scholar
  187. Yusoff FM, Happey-Wood CM, Anton A (1998) Vertical and seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in a tropical reservoir Malaysia. Int Rev Hydrobiol 83:112–134Google Scholar
  188. Yusoff FM, Matias HB, Khalid ZA, Phang SM (2001) Culture of microalgae using interstitial water extracted from shrimp pond bottom sediments. Aquaculture 201:263–270Google Scholar
  189. Zaneveld JS (1951) The economic marine algae of Malaysia and their applications—II. The Phaeophyta. Retrieved from www.apfic.org/Archiv/techpapers/1951/09.pdf on 20 December 2017
  190. Zaneveld JS (1959) The utilisation of marine algae in tropical South and East Asia. Econ Bot 13:89–131Google Scholar
  191. Zhang DH, Lee YK, Ng ML, Phang SM (1997) Composition and accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Chlorococcum sp. J Appl Phycol 9:147–155Google Scholar
  192. Zuldin WH, Yassir S, Shapawi R (2016) Growth and biochemical composition of Kappaphycus (Rhodophyta) in customized tank culture system. J Appl Phycol 28:2453–2458Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences & Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations