Sunscreen, antioxidant, and bactericide capacities of phlorotannins from the brown macroalga Halidrys siliquosa
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The present study focused on a brown macroalga (Halidrys siliquosa), with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their associated biological activities. Two fractions were obtained by liquid/liquid purification from a crude hydroethanolic extract: (i) an ethyl acetate fraction and (ii) an aqueous fraction. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of extract and both fractions were assessed by in vitro tests (Folin–Ciocalteu test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, and β-carotene–linoleic acid system). For the most active fraction, i.e., the ethyl acetate fraction, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, antibacterial activities, and sunscreen potential (Sun Protection Factor and UV-A-Protection Factor) were tested in vitro. A high correlation found between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content was interpreted as the involvement of polyphenolic compounds in antioxidant mechanisms. Interestingly, the ethyl acetate fraction appeared to be a broad-spectrum UV absorber and showed a strong bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. In this fraction, four phenolic compounds (trifuhalols and tetrafuhalols and, for the first time, diphlorethols and triphlorethols) were identified using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS analysis. These findings are promising for the use of H. siliquosa, abundant in Brittany, as a valuable source of photoprotectant molecules for sunscreen and cosmetic applications.
KeywordsAntioxidant Bactericidal Phenolic compounds Phaeophyceae Seaweed ORAC value Sunscreen potential
This work was co-financed with the support of the European Union ERDF-Atlantic Area Programme, MARMED project no. 2011-1/164 and the project RIV-ALG (n° 13006760), financed by CBB Development, and the region Bretagne (France). Authors from LEMAR would like to thank the Labex Mer initiative, a State Grant from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) in the “Investissements d’avenir” Program (reference ANR-10-LABX-19-01, Labex Mer). The first author thanks Alexandre Canton for his assistance during the extraction and purification process and Helen McCombie for reviewing English.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All authors contributed significantly to this work and are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
Klervi Le Lann, Valérie Stiger-Pouvreau and Laurence Coiffard conceived and designed the experiments. Klervi Le Lann, Gwladys Surget, Céline Couteau, Stéphane Cérantola, and Fanny Gaillard performed the experiments. Klervi Le Lann analyzed the data. Mayalen Zubia, Fabienne Guérard, Nathalie Poupart, and Valérie Stiger-Pouvreau contributed materials and analysis tools. Klervi Le Lann, Valérie Stiger-Pouvreau, Fabienne Guérard, Gwladys Surget, Stéphane Cérantola, Mayalen Zubia, and Laurence Coiffard wrote the paper.
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