Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1945–1961 | Cite as

Developments in production technology of Kappaphycus in the Philippines: more than four decades of farming

  • Anicia Q. Hurtado
  • Iain C. Neish
  • Alan T. Critchley
5th Congress of the International Society for Applied Phycology

Abstract

Kappaphycus is one of the most significant, economically valuable red seaweeds, cultivated in tropical and subtropical waters. This alga demands a relatively high market value globally, due to applications of the kappa carrageenan colloid that is industrially extracted from the biomass. Carrageenan is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals and for aquaculture applications. The first successful commercial cultivation of Kappaphycus (previously called Eucheuma) was recorded from the southern Philippines in the late 1960s using the line and stake method. Dramatic production increases were achieved, with the Philippines being the leading producer of Kappaphycus for more than 30 years, until it was overtaken by Indonesia (in approximately 2008). By 1988, Kappaphycus farming became widespread in Indonesia, and efforts have been undertaken to spread Kappaphycus farming to more than 30 countries worldwide. Since 2008 Kappaphycus production steadily rose in Indonesia, but production from the Philippines has tended to decline since 2011. Research and development (R&D) initiatives focusing on Kappaphycus in the Philippines emphasized the means to increase productivity and solutions to issues causing declining production. R&D focusing on Kappaphycus cultivars in the Philippines was made through the National Seaweed R&D Program. Several institutions and research centers took major steps to achieve these objectives. There were significant and relevant results obtained in studies of molecular taxonomy, factors affecting sporulation, tissue culture and mutagenesis, protoplast isolation, strain selection, mitigation of ‘ice–ice’ malaise and Neosiphonia infestations. A recent development in Kappaphycus farming was the discovery that use of an extract from a brown seaweed acts as a biostimulant to improve tolerance of cultivars to abiotic stresses. Problems and challenges encountered in the production of Kappaphycus, even after more than 40 years of farming, but which needed to be overcome, are discussed.

Keywords

Kappaphycus Farming Methods Productivity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The senior author is thankful to the National Organizing Committee of ISAP 2014 for inviting her as one of the plenary speakers and also for all the assistance extended and also to Lynn Cornish and Dr. Rafael R. Loureiro for their constructive insights in the revision of this manuscript.

References

  1. Alih EM (1990) Economics of seaweed Eucheuma farming in Tawi-Tawi Islands in the Philippines. In: Hirano R, Hanyu I (eds) The second Asian fisheries forum. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp 245–249Google Scholar
  2. Arthur GD, Stirk WA, van Staden J (2003) Effect of a seaweed concentrate on the growth and yield of three varieties of Capsicum annuum. S Afr J Bot 69:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azanza RV, Aliaza T (1999) In vitro carpospore release and germination in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty from Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Bot Mar 42:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azanza RV, Ask E (2003) Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty carposporeling growth and development in the laboratory. Int Seaweed Symp 17:95–99Google Scholar
  5. Azanza-Corrales R, Aliaza TT, Montano NE (1996) Recruitment of Eucheuma and Kappaphycus on a farm in Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Hydrobiologia 326(327):235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Leadley P, Thuiller W, Courchamp F (2012) Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecol Lett 15:365–377CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bixler HJ, Porse H (2011) A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blunden G, Jenkins T, Liu YW (1996) Enhanced leaf chlorophyll levels in plants treated with seaweed extract. J Appl Phycol 8:535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borlongan IAG, Tibubos KR, Yunque DAT, Hurtado AQ, Critchley AT (2011) Impact of AMPEP on the growth and occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia infestation on two varieties of commercially cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii grown at different depths in the Philippines. J Appl Phycol 23:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (2014). Fisheries Statistics Profile. http://countrystat.bas.gov.ph
  11. Craigie JS (2011) Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. J Appl Phycol 23:371–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Critcley AT, Hurtado AQ, Bleicher-L'honneur, GM, Leflamand A, Mazoyer J (2007) Observations on the duration of culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tamblang. Internat. Seaweed Symp. 19 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Critchley AT, Largo D, Wee W, Bleicher-L’honneur G, Hurtado AQ, Schubert J (2004) A preliminary summary on Kappaphycus farming and the impact of epiphytes. Jap J Phycol 52:231–232Google Scholar
  14. Crouch IJ, van Staden J (1992) Effect of seaweed concentrate on the establishment and yield of greenhouse tomato plants. J Appl Phycol 4:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawes CJ, Koch EW (1991) Branch micropropagule and tissue culture of the red alga Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii farmed in the Philippines. J Appl Phycol 3:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dawes CJ, Trono GC Jr, Lluisma AO (1993) Clonal propagation of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii for the Philippine seaweed farms. Hydrobiologia 260(261):379–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dawes CJ, Lluisma AO, Trono GC Jr (1994) Laboratory and field growth studies of commercial strains of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii in the Philippines. J Appl Phycol 6:21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doty MS (1973) Farming the red seaweed, Eucheuma, for carrageenans. Micronesica 9:59–73Google Scholar
  19. Doty MS (1985) Eucheuma alvarezii sp. novum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Malaysia. In: Abbott IA, Norris JN (eds) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds: with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. California Sea Grant College Program, La Jolla, pp 37–45Google Scholar
  20. Doty MS (1986) Estimating returns from producing Gracilaria and Eucheuma on line farms. Monogr Biol 4:45–62Google Scholar
  21. Doty MS (1988) Prodomus Ad Systematica Eucheumatoideorum: a tribe of commercial seaweeds related to Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales). In: Abbott IA (ed) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds: with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. Volume II. California Sea Grant College Program, La Jolla, pp 159–208Google Scholar
  22. Doty MS, Alvarez VB (1981) Eucheuma farm productivity. Int Seaweed Symp 8:688–691Google Scholar
  23. Fan D, Hodges DM, Zhang JZ, Kirby CW, Ji XH, Locke SJ, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B (2011) Commercial extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhances phenolic antioxidant content of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) which protects Caenorhabditis elegans against oxidative and thermal stress. Food Chem 124:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harley CDG, Anderson KM, Demes KW, Jorve JP, Kordas RL, Coyle TA, Graham MH (2012) Effects of climate change on global seaweed communities. J Phycol 48:1064–1078CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hurtado AQ (2008) In situ strain improvement of Kappaphycus. Terminal Report submitted to Cargill Texturizing Solutions. Cargill Texturizing Solutions, France, p 23Google Scholar
  26. Hurtado AQ (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the Philippines. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 91–113Google Scholar
  27. Hurtado AQ, Agbayani RF (2002) Deep sea farming of Kappaphycus using multiple raft long-line method. Bot Mar 45:438–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hurtado AQ, Biter AB (2007) Plantlet regeneration of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik by tissue culture. J Appl Phycol 19:783–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hurtado AQ, Cheney DP (2003) Propagule production of Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins and Harvey by tissue culture. Bot Mar 46:338–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hurtado AQ, Agbayani RF, Sanares R, de Castro-Mallare MTR (2001) The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya Antique, Philippines. Aquaculture 199:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hurtado AQ, Critchley AT, Trespoey A, Bleicher-L’honneur G (2006) Occurrence of Polysiphonia epiphytes in Kappaphycus farms at Calaguas Is. Camarines Norte, Philippines. J Appl Phycol 18:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hurtado AQ, Critchley AT, Bleicher-L’honneur G (2008a) Kappaphycuscottonii’ farming (revised ed.). Degussa Texturizing Solutions, BaupteGoogle Scholar
  33. Hurtado AQ, Pactoran JE, Allaga AT, Faburada ES (2008b) Mga dapat alamin sa pagsasaka ng Kappaphycuscottonii’. Philippine Development Assistance Program, Quezon CityGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurtado AQ, Critchley AT, Trespoey A, Bleicher-L’honneur G (2008c) Growth and carrageenan quality of Kappaphycus striatum var. sacol grown at different stocking densities, duration of culture and depth. J Appl Phycol 20:551–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hurtado AQ, Yunque DA, Tibubos KT, Critchley AT (2009) Use of Acadian marine plant extract powder from Ascophyllum nodosum in tissue culture of Kappaphycus varieties. J Appl Phycol 21:633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hurtado AQ, Joe M, Sanares RC, Fan D, Prithiviraj B, Critchley AT (2012) Investigation of the application of Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP) to enhance the growth, phenolic content, free radical scavenging, and iron chelating activities of Kappaphycus Doty (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 24:601–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hurtado AQ, Montaño MNE, Martinez-Goss MR (2013) Commercial production of carrageenophytes in the Philippines: ensuring long-term sustainability for the industry. J Appl Phycol 25:733–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hurtado AQ, Gerung GS, Yasir S, Critchley AT (2014) Cultivation of tropical red seaweeds in the BIMP-EAGA region. J Appl Phycol 26:707–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hurtado-Ponce AQ, Agbayani RF, Chavoso EAJ (1996) Economics of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii using fixed bottom line and hanging long line methods in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines. J Appl Phycol 105:105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jayaraj J, Wan A, Rahman M, Punja ZK (2008) Seaweed extract reduces foliar fungal disease on carrot. Crop Prot 10:1360–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jayaraj J, Norrie J, Punja ZK (2011) Commercial extract from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum reduces fungal diseases in green house cucumber. J Appl Phycol 23:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kraft GT (1970) The algal genus Eucheuma in the Philippines. Hawaii Botanical Sci. Paper. No. 18. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, p 368Google Scholar
  43. Krishnan M, Narayanakumar R (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in India. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming, Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 163–185Google Scholar
  44. Kronen M (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the Solomon Islands. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler. (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 147–161Google Scholar
  45. Kumar G, Sahoo D (2011) Effect of seaweed liquid extract on growth and yield of Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold J Appl Phycol 23:251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kumar M, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2013) The ameliorating effect of Acadian marine plant extract against liquids-induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. J Appl Phycol 25:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kumari R, Kaur I, Bhatnagar A (2011) Effect of aqueous extract of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell on growth, yield and quality of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. J Appl Phycol 23:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Largo DB, Fukami F, Nishijima T, Ohno M (1995a) Laboratory induced development of the ice-ice disease of the farmed red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 7:539–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Largo DB, Fukami F, Nishijima T (1995b) Occasional bacteria promoting ice-ice disease in the carrageenan-producing red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 7:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leclerc M, Caldwell CD, Lada RR, Norrie J (2006) Effect of plant growth regulators on propagule formation in Hemerocallis spp. and Hosta spp. Hort Sci 41:651–653Google Scholar
  51. Lim PE, Tan J, Phang SM, Nikmatullah A, Hong DD, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2013) Genetic diversity of Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) in Southeast Asia. J Appl Phycol 26:1253–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Loureiro RR, Reis RP, Critchley AT (2010) In vitro cultivation of three Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) variants (green, red and brown) exposed to a commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Ochrophyta). J Appl Phycol 22:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Loureiro RR, Reis RP, Berrogain FD, Critchley AT (2012) Extract powder from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis (AMPEP): a “vaccine-like” effect on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva. J Appl Phycol 24:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Loureiro RR, Reis RP, Berrogain FD, Critchley AT (2013) Effects of a commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum on the biomass production of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P C. Silva and its carrageenan yield and gel quality cultivated in Brazil. J Appl Phycol 26:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loureiro RR, Reis RP, Marroig RF (2014) Effect of the commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum Mont. on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva in situ submitted to lethal temperatures. J Appl Phycol 26:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Luhan MRJ, Sollesta H (2010) Growing the reproductive cells (carpospores) of the seaweed, Kappaphycus striatum, in the laboratory until outplanting in the field and maturation to tetrasporophyte. J Appl Phycol 22:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mancuso S, Azzarello E, Mugnai S, Briand X (2006) Marine bioactive substances (IPA extract) improve foliar ion uptake and water stress tolerance in potted Vitis vinifera plants. Adv Hort Sci 20:156–161Google Scholar
  58. Msuya FE (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the United Republic of Tanzania. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming, Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 115–146Google Scholar
  59. Neish IC (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in Indonesia. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 61–89Google Scholar
  60. Padilla EJ (1994) Economies of scale and factor elasticities in seaweed farming in the Philippines. TML Conference Proc 4:193–2007Google Scholar
  61. Parker HS (1974) The culture of the red algal genus Eucheuma in the Philippines. Aquac 3:425–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rayirath P, Jithesh MN, Farid A, Khan W, Palanisamy R, Hankins SD, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B (2008) Rapid bioassays to evaluate the plant growth promoting activity of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. using a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. J Appl Phycol 20:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rayirath P, Benkel B, Hodges DM, Allan-Wojtas P, MacKinnon S, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B (2009) Lipophilic components of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, enhance freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta 230:135–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ricohermoso MA, Deveau LE (1979) Review of commercial propagation of Eucheuma (Florideophyceae) clones in the Philippines. Int Seaweed Symp 9:525–531Google Scholar
  65. Robledo D, Gasca-Leyva E, Fraga J (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in Mexico. In D. Valderrama, J. Cai, N. Hishamunda, N. Ridler (eds) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 185–204Google Scholar
  66. Salvador RC, Serrano AE (2005) Isolation of protoplasts from tissue fragments of Philippine cultivars of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 17:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Samonte GPB, Hurtado-Ponce AQ, Caturao RD (1993) Economic analysis of bottom line and raft monoline culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang in Western Visayas, Philippines. Aquac 100:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Solis MJL, Draeger S, dela Cruz TEE (2010) Marine-derived fungi from Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatum as potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in farmed seaweed. Bot Mar 53:587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Spann TM, Little HA (2011) Applications of a commercial extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum increases drought tolerance in container-grown ‘Hamlin’ sweet orange nursery trees. Hort Sci 46:577–582Google Scholar
  70. Tan J, Lim PE, Phang SM, Hong DD, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2012) Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta). PLoS One 7(12):e52905CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Tan J, Lim PE, Phang SM, Rahiman A, Nikmatullah A, Sunarpi H, Hurtado AQ (2014) Kappaphycus malesianus sp. nov.: a new species of Kappaphycus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Southeast Asia. J Appl Phycol 26:1273–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tisera WL, Naguit MR (2009) Ice-ice disease occurrence in seaweed farms in Bais Bay, Negros Oriental and Zamboanga del Norte. Threshold 4:1–16Google Scholar
  73. Trono GC (1998) The seaweed resources of the Philippines. In: Critchley AT and Ohno M (eds). Seaweed Resources of the World. JICA, Japan 47–61Google Scholar
  74. Trono GC, Valdestamon RG (1994) New aspects in the ecology and culture of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. Kor J Phycol 9:205–216Google Scholar
  75. Trono GC Jr, Lluisma AO, Montaño MNE (2000) Primer on farming and strain selection of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma in the Philippines. PCAMRD, Quezon City, p 33Google Scholar
  76. Vairappan CS (2006) Seasonal occurrences of epiphytic algae on the commercially cultivated red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 18:611–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vairappan CS, Chung CS, Hurtado AQ, Soya FE, Bleicher-L’honneur G, Critchley A (2008) Distribution and symptoms of epiphyte infection in major carrageenophyte-producing farms. J Appl Phycol 20:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Valderrama D, Cai J, Hishamunda N, Ridler N (2013) Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming. FAO Fish Aqua Tech Paper 580. FAO, Rome, p 204Google Scholar
  79. Viejo RM, Martinez B, Arrontes J, Astudillo C, Hernandez L (2011) Reproductive patterns in central and marginal populations of a large brown seaweed: drastic changes at the southern range limit. Ecography 34:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Villanueva RD, Romero JB, Montaño MNE, de la Peña PO (2011) Harvest optimization of four Kappaphycus species from the Philippines. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1311–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yunque DAT, Tibubos KR, Hurtado AQ, Critchley AT (2011) Optimization of culture conditions for tissue culture production of young plantlets of carrageenophyte Kappaphycus. J Appl Phycol 23:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang XZ, Ervin EH (2004) Cytokinin-containing seaweed and humic acid extracts associated with creeping bentgrass leaf cytokinins and drought resistance. Crop Sci 44:1737–1745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhang XZ, Ervin EH (2008) Impact of seaweed extract-based cytokinins and zeatin riboside on creeping bentgrass heat tolerance. Crop Sci 48:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zuccarello GC, Critchley AT, Smith JE, Sieber V, Bleicher-L’honneur G, West JA (2006) Systematics and genetic variation in commercial Kappaphycus and Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 18:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anicia Q. Hurtado
    • 1
  • Iain C. Neish
    • 2
  • Alan T. Critchley
    • 3
  1. 1.Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and FisheriesIloilo CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Satoumi.co & CV EvadianMakassarIndonesia
  3. 3.Acadian Seaplants Limited (ASL)DartmouthCanada

Personalised recommendations