Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1587–1594 | Cite as

A novel actinomycete Streptomyces aurantiogriseus with algicidal activity against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

  • Theerasak Somdee
  • Nopmanee Sumalai
  • Anchana Somdee


A novel actinomycete strain (PK1) was isolated from soil in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, and was capable of inhibiting the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The isolate PK1 was identified as Streptomyces aurantiogriseus based on an analysis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. The algicidal activity of PK1 against M. aeruginosa depended on the growth phase of PK1, but not on the cyanobacterial growth phase. Stationary growth phase cultures of the strain PK1 exhibited the highest anti-Microcystis activity when co-cultivated with M. aeruginosa. Complete growth inhibition was observed after 8 days of co-cultivation in liquid culture medium. The algicidal compounds were extracted from PK1 with ethyl acetate and then purified by silica gel column chromatography. These partially purified compounds demonstrated algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa, suggesting that the strain PK1 provides a potential source of extracellular compounds for the control of M. aeruginosa bloom. This is the first report of anti-cyanobacterial activity from the soil actinomycete S. aurantiogriseus.


Streptomyces aurantiogriseus Microcystis aeruginosa anti-Microcystis actinomycetes 



The authors thank the Plant Genetics Conservation Project under The Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn for the permission to conduct the research. We would also like to thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Somdej Kanokmedhakul for the assistance with the fractionation procedure and for the useful discussions.


  1. Ara I, Bukhari NA, Aref NM, Shinwari MMA, Bakir MA (2012) Antiviral activities of Streptomycetes against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Datura plant: evaluation of different organic compounds in their metabolites. Afr J Biotechnol 11:2130–2138Google Scholar
  2. Atta HM, Ahmad MS (2009) Antimycin-A antibiotic biosynthesis produced by Streptomyces sp. AZ-AR-262: taxonomy, fermentation, purification and biological activities. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3:126–135Google Scholar
  3. Baltz RH (2008) Renaissance in antibacterial discovery from actinomycetes. Curr Opin Pharmacol 8:557–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi HJ, Kim BH, Kim JD, Han MS (2005) Streptomyces neyagawaensis as a control for the hazardous biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in eutrophic freshwaters. Biol Control 33:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. DeFrank J, Putnam AR (1985) Screening procedures to identify soil-borne Actinomycetes that can produce herbicidal compounds. Weed Sci 33:271–274Google Scholar
  6. El-Khawagh MA, Hamadah KS, El-Sheikh TM (2011) The insecticidal activity of Actinomycete metabolites, against the mosquito Culex pipiens. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 4:103–113Google Scholar
  7. El-Nakeeb MA, Lechevalier HA (1963) Selective isolation of aerobic actinomycetes. Appl Microbiol 11:75–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ernst A, Deicher M, Herman PMJ, Wollenzien UIA (2005) Nitrate and phosphate affect cultivability of Cyanobacteria from environments with low nutrient levels. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3379–3383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Furusawa G, Yoshikawa T, Yasuda A, Sakata T (2003) Algicidal activity and gliding motility of Saprospira sp. SS98-5. Can J Microbiol 49:92–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Holmstrom C, Kjelleberg S (1999) Marine Pseudoalteromonas species are associated with higher organisms and produce biologically active extracellular agents. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holt JG, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST (1994) Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edn. Lippincott, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoshaw R, Rosowski JR (1973) Method for microscopic algae. In: Stein JR (ed) Handbook of phycological methods, culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 53–56Google Scholar
  13. Hua XH, Li JH, Li JJ, Zhang LH, Cui Y (2009) Selective inhibition of the cyanobacterium, Microcystis, by a Streptomyces sp. Biotech Lett 31:1531–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Imamura N, Motoike I, Shimada N, Nishikori M, Morisaki H, Fukami H (2001) An efficient screening approach for anti-Microcystis compounds based on knowledge of aquatic microbial ecosystem. J Antibiot 54:528–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Iwami M, Nakayama O, Terano H, Kohsaka M, Aoki H, Imanaka H (1987) A new immunomodulator, FR-900494: taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics. J Antibiot 40:612–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jeong SY, Ishida K, Ito Y, Okada S, Murakami M (2003) Bacillamide, a novel algicide from the marine bacterium Bacillus sp. SY-1, against the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Tet Lett 44:8005–8007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kayakiri H, Takase S, Shibata T, Okamoto M, Terano H, Hashimoto M, Tada T, Koda S (1989) Structure of kifunensine, a new immunomodulator isolated from an actinomycete. J Org Chem 54:4015–4016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kekuda TRP, Shobha KS, Onkarappa R (2010) Potent insecticidal activity of two Streptomyces species isolated from the soil of the Western Ghats of Agumbe, Karnataka. J Nat Pharm 1:30–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim JD, Kim JY, Park JK, Lee CG (2009) Selective control of the Prorocentrum minimum harmful algal blooms by a novel algal-lytic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis AFMB-008041. Mar Biotechnol 11:463–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kodani S, Imoto A, Mitsutani A, Murakami M (2002) Isolation and identification of the antialgal compound, harmane (1-methyl-β-carboline), produced by the algicidal bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. K44-1. J Appl Phycol 14:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee SO, Kato J, Takiguchi N, Kuroda A, Ikeda T, Mitsutani A, Ohtake H (2000) Involvement of an extracellular protease in algicidal activity of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain A28. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4334–4339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lovejoy C, Bowman JP, Hallegraeff GM (1998) Algicidal effects of novel marine Pseudoalteromonas isolate (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision) on harmful algal bloom species of genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium, and Heterosigma. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2806–2813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Magarvey NA, Keller JM, Bernan V, Dworkin M, Sherman DH (2004) Isolation and characterization of novel marine-derived actinomycete taxa rich in bioactive metabolites. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7520–7529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mayali X, Azam F (2004) Algicidal bacteria in the sea and their impact on algal blooms. J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGuire MJ, Jones RM, Means EG, Izaguirre G, Preston AE (1984) Controlling attached blue-green algae with copper sulfate. J Am Water Works Assoc 76:60–65Google Scholar
  26. Mitsutani A, Takesue K, Kirita M, Ishida Y (1992) Lysis of Skeletonema costatum by Cytophaga sp. isolated from the coastal water of the Ariake Sea. Nippon Suisan Gakk 58:2159–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Naeimpoor F, Mavituna F (2000) Metabolic flux analysis in Streptomyces coelicolor under various nutrient limitations. Metab Eng 2:140–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ningthoujam DS, Sanasam S, Nimaichand S (2009) Screening of actinomycete isolates from niche habitats in Manipur for antibiotic activity. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 5:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Phay N, Yada H, Higashiyama T, Yokota A, Ichihara A, Tomita F (1996) NP-101A, antifungal antibiotics from Streptomyces aurantiogriseus NPO-101. J Antibiot 49:703–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pimentel-Elardo SM, Kozytska S, Bugni T, Ireland CM, Moll H, Hentschel U (2010) Anti-parasitic compounds from Streptomyces sp. strains isolated from Mediterranean sponges. Mar Drugs 8:373–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reddy NG, Ramakrishna DPN, Raja Gopal SV (2011) A morphological, physiological and biochemical studies of marine Streptomyces rochei (MTCC 10109) showing antagonistic activity against selective human pathogenic microorganisms. Asian J Biol Sci 4:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruiz MLV, Silva PG, Laciar AL (2009) Comparison of microplate, agar drop and well diffusion plate methods for evaluating hemolytic activity of Listeria monocytogenes. Afr J Microbiol Res 3:319–324Google Scholar
  33. Sacramento DR, Coelho RRR, Wigg MD, Linhares LFTL, Santos MGM, Semêdo LTAS, Silva AJR (2004) Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of an actinomycete (Streptomyces sp.) isolated from a Brazilian tropical forest soil. World J Microbiol Biot 20:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sejiny MJ (1991) Growth phase of some antibiotics producing Streptomyces and their identification. J King Abdulaziz Univ 3:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shirling EB, Gottlieb D (1966) Methods for characterization of Streptomyces species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 16:313–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shirling EB, Gottlieb D (1968) Cooperative description of type culture of Streptomyces II. Species description from first study. Int J Syst Bacteriol 18:69–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sivonen K, Jones G (1999) Cyanobacterial toxins. In: Chorus I, Bartran J (eds) Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. E&FN Spon, London, pp 41–111Google Scholar
  39. Stach JEM, Maldonado LA, Ward AC, Goodfellow M, Bull AT (2003) New primers for the class Actinobacteria: application to marine and terrestrial environments. Environ Microbiol 5:828–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Staneck JL, Roberts GD (1974) Simplified approach to identification of aerobic actinomycetes by thin-layer chromatography. Appl Microbiol 28:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Umehara K, Yoshida K, Okamoto M, Iwami M, Tanaka H, Kohsaka M, Imanaka H (1984) Studies on new antiplatelet agents, WS-30581 A and B. J Antibiot 37:1153–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ventura M, Canchaya C, Tauch A, Chandra G, Fitzgerald GF, Chater KF, van Sinderen D (2007) Genomics of Actinobacteria: tracing the evolutionary history of an ancient phylum. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:495–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams ST, Sharmeemullah M, Watson ET, Mayfield CI (1972) Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil VI. The influence of moisture tension on growth and survival. Soil Biol Biochem 4:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Williams ST, Goodfelow M, Alderson G (1989) Genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943, 339AL. In: William ST, Sharpe ME (eds) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4. Lippincott, Baltimore, pp 2452–2492Google Scholar
  45. Yamamoto Y, Kouchiwa T, Hodoki Y, Hotta K, Uchida H, Harada KI (1998) Distribution and identification of actinomycetes lysing cyanobacteria in a eutrophic lake. J Appl Phycol 10:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zheng Z, Zeng W, Huang Y, Yang Z, Li J, Cai H, Su W (2000) Detection of antitumor and antimicrobial activities in marine organism associated actinomycetes isolated from the Taiwan Strait, China. FEMS Microbiol Lett 188:87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theerasak Somdee
    • 1
  • Nopmanee Sumalai
    • 1
  • Anchana Somdee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations