Microsatellite markers for the palaeo-temperature indicator Pentapharsodinium dalei (Dinophyceae)
Pentapharsodinium dalei is a widely distributed cold-water dinoflagellate, which is used in palaeoecology as an indicator of relatively warmer conditions in polar and sub-polar regions. This species has been proposed to be one of the first indicators of global warming at high latitudes. We developed the first microsatellite markers for P. dalei to facilitate the study of spatial and temporal population genetic changes. Single cysts were isolated from surface sediments in Koljö Fjord, Sweden. After cyst germination, single vegetative cells were isolated for establishing monoclonal cultures. Six dinucleotide polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed as multiplex polymerase chain reactions and were genotyped in 32 strains. The number of alleles per locus varied between 4 and 12, and the estimated gene diversity varied from 0.588 to 0.891. The haploid state of the vegetative cells was confirmed. The six selected microsatellites will be useful to explore population dynamics in P. dalei from contemporary planktonic and revived benthic samples to enable, for example, detailed studies into the evolutionary consequences of anthropogenic and climate-driven habitat changes.
KeywordsDinoflagellate Global change Microsatellites Multiplex PCR Pentapharsodinium dalei Population genetics Sediment Temperature
This study was part of the Danish Research Council project 2111-04-0011. SR holds a postdoctoral grant from the Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark (no. 2011_01_0337).
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