Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 485–495 | Cite as

Influence of mixing and shear stress on Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

  • Marco Leupold
  • Stefan Hindersin
  • Giselher Gust
  • Martin Kerner
  • Dieter Hanelt
Article

Abstract

Photosynthetic activity (PA) and growth of different microalgae species (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) depends in addition to other factors on mixing (tip speed) and shear stress (friction velocity) and was studied in a stirring tank (microcosm). In order to detect cause–effect relationships for an increase in photosynthetic activity, experiments were conducted under different pH values (6.0–8.5) and CO2 concentrations (0.038 and 4 % (v/v)). The PA was determined as the effective quantum yield by pulse amplitude modulation during a stepwise increase of the tip speed from 0 to 589 cm s−1 (friction velocity: 0–6.05 cm s−1) in short-term experiments. The increase caused a distinctive pattern of PA of each species. Compared to 0 cm s−1, C. vulgaris and S. obliquus showed a 4.0 and 4.8 % higher PA at the optimum tip speed of 126 cm s−1 (friction velocity of 2.09 cm s−1) and a 48 and 71 % higher growth, respectively. At 203 cm s−1, the PA dropped to the value of the unstirred control, while at 589 cm s−1, the PA decreased of up to 7 and 8 %. In contrast, C. reinhardtii showed 7 % stronger growth at 126 cm s−1, while the PA decreased about 15 % at an increase of tip speed to 589 cm s−1. For all investigated microalgae, the pattern of PA and higher growth was not only explained by the main contributing factors like light supply, nutrient supply, and overcoming diffusion gradients. The results indicate that hydrodynamic forces have a stimulating effect on the physiological processes within the cells.

Keywords

Mixing Shear stress/friction velocity Microalgae Chlorophyta Photosynthetic activity Growth Photobioreactors 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks are dedicated to Mr. Abd El-Fatah Abo-Mohra for helping with A. flos-aquae experiments. The study is based on results obtained during the research project “Development of a prototype of photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae” funded by the Innovationsstiftung Hamburg.

References

  1. Björkman O, Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170:489–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borowitzka MA (1999) Commercial production of microalgae: ponds, tanks, and fermenters. J Biotech 70:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bronnenmeier R, Märkl H (1982) Hydrodynamic stress capacity of microorganisms. Biotech Bioeng 24:553–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carvalho AP, Meireles LA, Malcata FX (2006) Microalgal reactors: a review of enclosed system designs and performances. Biotech Prog 22:1490–1506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chisti Y (2001) Hydrodynamic damage to animal cells. Critical Rev Biotechno 21:67–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Contreras A, García F, Molina E, Merchuk JC (1998) Interaction between CO2-mass transfer, light availability, and hydrodynamic stress in the growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a concentric tube airlift photobioreactor. Biotech Bioeng 60:317–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Finelli C, Helmuth B, Pentcheff N, Wethey D (2006) Water flow influences oxygen transport and photosynthetic efficiency in corals. Coral Reefs 25:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The Relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron-transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gudin C, Chaumont D (1991) Cell fragility —the key problem of microalgae mass production in closed photobioreactors. Biores Technol 38:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gust, G. (1989) Method and apparatus to generate precisely-defined wall shearing stresses. US-Patent 4884892Google Scholar
  11. Gust G, Müller V (1997) Interfacial hydrodynamics and entrainment functions of currently used erosion devices. In: Burt N, Parker R, Watts J (eds) Cohesive sediments. Wiley, Chichester, pp 149–174Google Scholar
  12. Hosaka K, Hioki T, Furuune H, Tanishita K (1995) Augmentation of microalgae growth due to hydrodynamic activation. Eng Convers Manage 36:725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huettel M, Gust G (1992) Solute release mechanism from confined sediment cores in stirred benthic chambers and flume flows. Mar Ecol Prog Se 82:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jaouen P, Vandanjon L, Quéméneur F (1999) The shear stress of microalgal cell suspensions (Tetraselmis suecica) in tangential flow filtration systems: the role of pumps. Biores Technol 68:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kleeberg A, Hupfer M, Gust G (2007) Phosphorus entrainment due to resuspension in a lowland river, Spree, NE Germany—a laboratory microcosm study. Wat Air Soil Pollut 183:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koch EW (1994) Hydrodynamics, diffusion-boundary layers and photosynthesis of the sea grasses Thalassia testudinum and Cymodocea nodosa. Mar Biol 118:767–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kommareddy, A.R. and Anderson, G.A. (2005) Mechanistic modeling of photobioreactor system. Paper number 054167, American Society of Agricultural and Biological EngineersGoogle Scholar
  18. Lippemeier S, Hintze R, Vanselow K, Hartig P, Colijn F (2001) In-line recording of PAM fluorescence of phytoplankton cultures as a new tool for studying effects of fluctuating nutrient supply on photosynthesis. Europ J Phycol 36:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Märkl H (1980) Modelling of agal production systems. In: Shelef G, Soeder CJ (eds) Algal Biomass. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  20. Merchuk J (1991) Shear effects on suspended cells. In Bioreactor Systems and Effects. pp.65-95: Springer Berlin / HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  21. Michels MHA, Goot AJ, Norsker NH, Wijffels RH (2010) Effects of shear stress on the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri. Bioproc Biosyst Eng 33:921–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mirón AS, García MCC, Gómez AC, Camacho FG, Grima EM, Chisti Y (2003) Shear stress tolerance and biochemical characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum in quasi steady-state continuous culture in outdoor photobioreactors. Biochem Eng J 16:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitsuhashi S, Hosaka K, Tomonaga E, Muramatsu H, Tanishita K (1995) Effects of shear flow on photosynthesis in a dilute Lsuspension of microalgae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:744–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oswald WJ (1988) Large-scale algal culture systems (engineering aspects). In: Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (eds) Micro-Algal Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 357–394Google Scholar
  25. Panda AK, Mishra S, Bisaria VS, Bhojwani SS (1989) Plant cell reactors—a perspective. Enz Microb Tech 11:386–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pasiack WJ, Gavis J (1975) Transport limited nutrient uptake rates in Ditylum brightwellii. Limnology and Oceanography 20:604–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Richmond A (2007) Microalgal culture—biotechnology and applied phycology: Blackwell PublishingGoogle Scholar
  28. Richmond A, Vonshak A (1978) Spirulina culture in Israel. Arch Hydrobiol 11:274–280Google Scholar
  29. Sánchez Pérez JA, Rodríguez Porcel EM, Casas López JL, Fernández Sevilla JM, Chisti Y (2006) Shear rate in stirred tank and bubble column bioreactors. Chem Eng J 124:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schlichting J (1968) Boundary layer theory. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Sobczuk T, Camacho F, Grima E, Chisti Y (2006) Effects of agitation on the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium cruentum. Bioproc Biosyst Eng 28:243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tennekes, H. and Lumley, J.L. (1972) A first course in turbulence. pp. 55, 197-201. Cambridge, MA: MITGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas W, Gibson C (1990) Effects of small-scale turbulence on microalgae. J Appl Phycol 2:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thomsen L, Gust G (2000) Sediment erosion thresholds and characteristics of resuspended aggregates on the western European continental margin. Deep Sea Res 47:1881–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Leupold
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stefan Hindersin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giselher Gust
    • 3
  • Martin Kerner
    • 2
  • Dieter Hanelt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and PhycologyUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Strategic Science Consult SSC Ltd.HamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Product Development and Mechanical Engineering DesignHamburg University of TechnologyHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations