Extract powder from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis (AMPEP): a “vaccine-like” effect on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva
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The benefits of using Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP), obtained from the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, for improving growth of the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii has been demonstrated by authors in the Philippines and Brazil, particularly for increasing daily growth rate and mitigation of epiphytes. However, the processes which occur have not been discussed. This study examined in vitro the relationship between those red algal defense mechanisms and K. alvarezii responses using AMPEP treatments. The administration of the extract reduced the effects of the oxidative burst (production of hydrogen peroxide) which may be extremely aggressive for an individual and its epiphyte. The bleaching of the non-corticated portions of Polysiphonia subtilissima thalli that were cultivated as simulated epiphytes with AMPEP samples confirmed that the reaction was evident in which AMPEP protected K. alvarezii from the hydrogen peroxide effects. It is proposed that the use of the brown seaweed powder AMPEP acts as a potential vaccine, eliciting activation of the red seaweed K. alvarezii natural defenses against pathogens and ameliorating the negative effects of long-term exposure to oxidative bursts.
KeywordsKappaphycus alvarezii Improving productivity Brown seaweed powder AMPEP Red algal defense mechanisms Biotechnology Epiphytes
This work was supported by FAPERJ, CAPES, and CNPq. The authors would like to thank Acadian Seaplants Limited for providing the AMPEP, Ondas Biomar Cultivo de Algas Ltda. for providing K. alvarezii samples, Dr. Jonas Collén for the critical reviews in the early stages of this work and Dr. Lynn Cornish for providing a number of references used in the discussion.
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