Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 181–186 | Cite as

Effect of temperature on cell growth and production of transparent exopolymer particles by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii isolated from marine mucilage

  • Tsuyoshi Fukao
  • Katsunori Kimoto
  • Yuichi Kotani


In the autumn of 2007, marine mucilage caused by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii occurred in the central area of Ariake Sound, Japan, and resulted in damage to fishery. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the outbreak of marine mucilage, we examined the effect of temperature on cell growth and production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) in a culture of this species. Growth and TEP production of C. granii are influenced by temperature. The maximum growth rate (1.63 divisions day−1) and cell yield (1,280 cells mL−1) at all temperatures were obtained at 30°C. Optimal growth rates (>1.15 divisions day−1: ca. 70% of maximum) and cell yield (>900 cells mL−1: ca. 70% of maximum) were observed at temperatures of 25–30°C. TEP production by C. granii depended on whether volume- or cell-related values were considered. The maximum volume-normalized increase rates and concentrations of TEP at all temperatures were observed at 25°C. However, when production rates and concentrations of TEP were normalized to cell numbers, optimal values were measured at 10–15°C. In Ariake Sound, when marine mucilage caused by C. granii occurred, the temperature ranged from 25.0 to 25.4°C. This suggests that growth conditions of C. granii are important factors for production of marine mucilage.


Coscinodiscus granii Diatom Marine mucilage Temperature Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) 



The authors wish to thank Dr. T. Yamatogi (Nagasaki Prefectural Institute of Fisheries) for his helpful comments during the preparation of this manuscript.


  1. Alcoverro T, Conte E, Mazzella L (2000) Production of mucilage by the adriatic epipelic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) under nutrient limitation. J Phycol 36:1087–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldi F, Minacci A, Saliot A, Mejanelle L, Mozetic P, Turk V, Malej A (1997) Cell lysis and release of particulate polysaccharides in extensive marine mucilage assessed by lipid biomarkers and molecular probes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 153:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhaskar PV, Bhosle NB (2005) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances in marine biogeochemical processes. Curr Sci 88:45–53Google Scholar
  4. Boalch GT, Harbour DS (1977) Unusual diatom off the coast of south-west England and its effect on fishing. Nature 269:687–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Claquin P, Probert I, Lefebvre S, Veron B (2008) Effects of temperature on photosynthetic parameters and TEP production in 8 species of marine microalgae. Aquat Microb Ecol 51:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Corzo A, Morillo JA, Rodríguez S (2000) Production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in cultures of Chaetoceros calcitrans under nitrogen limitation. Aquat Microb Ecol 23:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engel A, Thoms S, Riebesell U, Rochelle-Newall E, Zondervan I (2004) Polysaccharide aggregation as a potential sink of marine dissolved organic carbon. Nature 428:929–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fukao T, Kimoto K, Yamatogi T, Yamamoto K, Yurimoto T, Kotani Y (2008) Mucilage phenomenon in Ariake Sound during autumn, 2007 and estimation of the causative phytoplankton. Bull Plankton Soc Japan 55:127–131 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  9. Fukao T, Kimoto K, Yamatogi T, Yamamoto K, Yoshida Y, Kotani Y (2009) Marine mucilage in Ariake Sound, Japan, is composed of transparent exopolymer particles produced by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii. Fish Sci 75:1007–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gromisz S, Witek Z (2001) Main phytoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Gdańsk and the Pomeranian Bay from 1994 to 1997. Bull Sea Fisheries Inst 2(153):31–51Google Scholar
  11. Guillard RRL (1973) Division rates. In: Stein JR (ed) Handbook of phycological methods: culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–311Google Scholar
  12. Guillard RRL, Ryther JH (1962) Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. I Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacea (Cleve) Gran. Can J Microbiol 8:229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kiørboe T, Hansen JLS, Alldredge AL, Jackson GA, Passow U, Dam HG, Drapeau DT, Waite A, Garcia CM (1996) Sedimentation of phytoplankton during a spring diatom bloom: rates and mechanisms. J Mar Res 54:1123–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leppard G (1997) Colloidal organic fibrils of acidic polysaccharides in surface waters: electron-optical characteristics, activities, and chemical estimates of abundance. Colloids Surf 120:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu H, Buskey EJ (2000) Hypersalinity enhances the production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the Texas brown tide alga, Aureoumbra lagunensis (Pelagophyceae). J Phycol 36:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. MacKenzie L, Sims I, Beuzenberg V, Gillespie P (2002) Mass accumulation of mucilage caused by dinoflagellate polysaccharide exudates in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. Harmful Algae 1:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mari X (1999) Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 183:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mari X, Kiørboe T (1996) Abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) during spring in the Kattegat. J Plankton Res 18:969–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moriceau B, Garvey M, Ragueneau O, Passow U (2007) Evidence for reduced biogenic silica dissolution rates in diatom aggregates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nishikawa T (2002) Effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of diatom Eucampia zodiacus caused bleaching of seaweed Porphyra isolated from Harima-Nada, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 68:356–361 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nishikawa T, Miyahara K, Nagai S (2000) Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth of the giant diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii isolated from Harima-Nada, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 66:993–998 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Olivos Ortiz A, Quijano Scheggia SI, García Uribe G, Galicia Pérez MA, Gaviño Rodríguez JH (2005) Influence of physicochemical parameters on the distribution of the main phytoplankton groups off the coasts of the state of Colima on the year 2002. Ciencia en la Frontera: Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología de la UACJ 3:13–28 (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  23. Passow U (2000) Formation of transparent exopolymer particles, TEP, from dissolved precursor material. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 192:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Passow U (2002) Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in aquatic environments. Prog Oceanogr 55:287–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Passow U, Alldredge AL (1994) Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 113:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Passow U, Alldredge AL (1995) A dye-binding assay for the spectrophotometric measurement of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). Limnol Oceanogr 40:1326–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Passow U, Shipe RF, Murray A, Pak DK, Brzezinski MA (2001) The origin of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their role in the sedimentation of particulate matter. Cont Shelf Res 21:327–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Passow U, Engel A, Ploug H (2003) The role of aggregation for the dissolution of diatom frustules. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 46:247–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Provasoli L, McLaughlin JJA, Droop MR (1957) The development of artificial media for marine algae. Arch Mikrobiol 25:392–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Radić T, Kraus R, Fuks D, Radić J, Pečar O (2005) Transparent exopolymeric particles’ distribution in the northern Adriatic and their relation to microphytoplankton biomass and composition. Sci Total Environ 353:151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Surosz W, Palińska KA, Rutkowska A (2006) Production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae OL-K 10. Oceanologia 48:385–394Google Scholar
  32. Suzuki Y, Takahashi M (1995) Growth responses of several diatom species isolated from various environments to temperature. J Phycol 31:880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wetz MS, Wheeler PA (2007) Release of dissolved organic matter by coastal diatoms. Limnol Oceanogr 52:798–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wolfstein K, Stal LJ (2002) Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by benthic diatoms: effect of irradiance and temperature. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 236:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamaguchi M (1994) Physiological ecology of the red tide flagellate Gymnodinium nagasakiense (Dinophyceae)—mechanism of the red tide occurrence and its population. Bull Nansei Natl Fish Res Inst 27:251–394 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  36. Yamaguchi M, Itakura S, Nagasaki K, Matsuyama Y, Uchida T, Imai I (1997) Effects of temperature and salinity on the growth of the red tide flagellates Heterocapsa circularisquama (Dinophyceae) and Chattonella verruculosa (Raphidophyceae). J Plankton Res 19:1167–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamaguchi H, Mizushima K, Sakamoto S, Yamaguchi M (2010) Effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on growth of the novel red tide flagellate Chattonella ovata (Raphidophyceae). Harmful Algae 9:398–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang J, Nishijima T, Fukami K (1996) Production of vitamin B12 binder by Heterosigma akashiwo and some of its properties. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 62:647–653 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsuyoshi Fukao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katsunori Kimoto
    • 1
  • Yuichi Kotani
    • 1
  1. 1.Seikai National Fisheries Research InstituteFisheries Research AgencyNagasaki-shiJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKita-gunJapan

Personalised recommendations