Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 219–225 | Cite as

cDNA cloning and phylogenetic and expression analyses of actin in symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.)

  • Toshiki Watanabe
  • Shin-ichi Kii
  • Jiro Tanaka
  • Kiyotaka Takishita
  • Tadashi Maruyama


Three cDNAs encoding actins were identified in two culturable strains (clades A and F) of the symbiotic dinoflagellates Symbiodinium spp. In a molecular phylogenetic analysis these actin sequences formed a monophyletic group with known dinoflagellate actins, remote from Syact-p that had been isolated from a clade A Symbiodinium strain (HG39). One of the newly identified actin sequences (SyAct-F1) was the most closely related to partial actin cDNA sequences (named AGfact-p and AFcact-p) isolated from adult colonies of two reef corals (Galaxea fascicularis and Favites chinensis) that were inhabited by Symbiodinium spp., suggesting the possibility that the latter two were from the symbionts. Partial AFcact-p sequences could be amplified by PCR using genomic DNA prepared from a symbiotic adult colony of F. chinensis as the template, but not from planula larvae in which zooxanthellae could not be detected, also arguing for the origin of AFcact-p in the symbiont. An expression analysis showed that the levels of the SyAct-A1 mRNA were comparable in symbiotic and non-symbiotic states, and also in motile and non-motile phases in a cultured condition, suggesting its usefulness as a constitutively expressed control gene in expression analysis of Symbiodinium mRNAs.


Acropora Alveolata Coral Pulanula Symbiosis Zooxanthella 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiki Watanabe
    • 1
  • Shin-ichi Kii
    • 2
  • Jiro Tanaka
    • 2
  • Kiyotaka Takishita
    • 3
  • Tadashi Maruyama
    • 3
  1. 1.Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Marine ScienceTokyo University of Marine Science and TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Extremobiosphere Research CenterJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokosukaJapan

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