Experimental tank cultivation of Porphyra in Israel



Outdoor tank cultivation of several Porphyra (nori) species was carried out from late November 2002 through early May 2003 using 40 L (with a surface of 0.25 m2), 600 L (1 m2), and 24,000 L (30 m2) fiberglass or PVC tanks provided with continuous aeration and seawater flow. Sexual and asexual spores produced from cultured conchocelis and frozen thalli in the laboratory, respectively, were subsequently grown to produce young fronds (ca. 5-10 cm) in an average time of 8 weeks. Growth in outdoor tanks and ponds was possible for a period of up to 20 weeks (i.e. growth season), with yields above 100 g FW m−2d−1occurring during 12-14 weeks from late December through late March, when seawater temperatures were below 20 C. These yields correlated with the species and depended on the type of tanks in which the algae were cultivated, with the highest yields observed for Porphyra sp. and Porphyra yezoensis when fertilized twice a week with NH4 Cl and NaH2 PO4in 40 L tanks. Calculations of productivity for an entire growth season based on ≥ 100 g FW m−2d−1yields exceed the average productivities using seeded nets in open sea, for all Porphyra species tested (0.96-4.06 kg DW m−2 season−1vs. 0.7-1.0 kg DW m−2of net season−1). Therefore, tank cultivation of Porphyra can offer an additional source of nori biomass to international markets. Land-based tank cultivation also offers an environmentally friendly practice that allows for the manipulation of growth conditions to enrich seaweeds with specific, valuable chemicals such as protein and minerals.

Key words

biomass yields environment Porphyra tank cultivation 


  1. Chopin T., Buschmann A.H., Halling C., Troell M., Kautsky N., Neori A., Kraemer G.P., Zertuche-Gonzales J.A., Yarish C. and Neefus C. 2001. Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key toward sustainability. Journal of Phycology 37: 975–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fei X. 2004. Solving the coastal eutrophication problem by large scale seaweed cultivation. Hydrobiologia 512: 145–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Friedlander M., Levy I. 1995. Cultivation of Gracilaria in outdoors tanks and ponds. Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hafting J.T. 1999a. Effect of tissue nitrogen and phosphorus quota on growth of Porphyra yezoensis blades in suspension culture. Hydrobiologia 398: 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hafting J.T. 1999b. A novel technique for propagation of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda blades in suspension cultures via monospores. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Israel A., Katz S., Dubinsky Z., Merrill J.E., Friedlander M. 1999. Photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization and growth of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Katz S., Kizner Z., Dubinsky Z. and Friedlander M. 2000. Responses of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta) to environmental factors under controlled culture conditions. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 535–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. McHugh D.J. 2003. A guide of the seaweed market. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 441, pp. 105.Google Scholar
  9. Mencher F.M., Spencer R.B., Woessner J.W., Katase S.J. and Barclay D.K. 1983. Growth of nori (Porphyra tenera) in an experimental OTEC-aquaculture system in Hawaii. Journal of World Mariculture Society 14: 458–470.Google Scholar
  10. Merrill J.E. 1993. Development of nori markets in the western world. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 194–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miura A., Aruga Y. 1987. Distribution of Porphyra in Japan as affected by cultivation. Journal of Tokyo University of Fisheries 74: 41–50.Google Scholar
  12. Neori A., Shpigel M. and Ben-Ezra D. 2000. A sustainable integrated system for culture of fish, seaweed and abalone. Aquaculture 186: 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Notoya M. 1999. ‘Seed’ production of Porphyra spp. by tissue culture. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Provasoli L. 1968. Media and prospects for cultivation of marine algae. In: Watanabe A, Hattori, A (eds), Cultures and Collections of Algae. Proceedings U.S.- Japan Conf. Hakonte. Japanese Society of Plant Physiology, pp. 63–75.Google Scholar
  15. Sidirelli-Wolff M. 1992. The influence of temperature, irradiance and photoperiod on the reproductive life history of Porphyra leucosticta (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in laboratory culture. Botanica Marina 35: 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tanaka T., Kakino J., Miyata M. 1997. Existing conditions and problems of nori (Porphyra) cultivation at the coast of Chiba prefecture in Tokyo bay. Natural History Research 3: 97–109.Google Scholar
  17. Yamamoto M., Watanabe Y., Kinoshita H. 1991. Effects of water temperature on the growth of red alga Porphyra yezoensis form narawaensis (nori) cultivated in an outdoor raceway tank. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57: 2211–2217.Google Scholar
  18. Yarish C., Wilkes R., Chopin T., Fei X.G., Mathieson A.C., Klein A.S., Friel D., Neefus C.D., Mitman G.G. and Levine I. 1998. Domesticating indigenous Porphyra (nori) species for commercial cultivation in northeast America. World Aquaculture 29: 26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research, Ltd.The National Institute of OceanographyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Noritech Seaweed Biotechnologies, Ltd.YoqneamIsrael

Personalised recommendations