Regulation of Sorus Formation by Auxin in Laminariales Sporophyte

  • Tomoki Kai
  • Kazumi Nimura
  • Hajime Yasui
  • Hiroyuki Mizuta


Young sporophytes of Laminaria japonica Areshoug were cultured in six indole-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations (0, 10−8, 10−7, 10−6, 10−5, 10−4 M) to examine the effect of auxin on growth. The effects of auxin on sorus formation were also examined by using discs taken from the adult sporophyte. The auxin contents and IAA oxidase activities in the thallus and sorus parts of the sporophyte were determined with the blade and sporophyll of other Laminariales plants, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Alaria crassifolia Kjellman. The young sporophytes of L. japonica showed highest elongation rate in 10−5 M IAA. In contrast, the sorus formation on the discs cultured in 10−5 M IAA was markedly delayed in comparison with other concentrations, indicating that sorus formation was suppressed by IAA. Free and conjugated auxin contents were lower in the reproductive parts than in the vegetative parts. In three Laminariales sporophytes, IAA oxidase activity was about 3–9 times higher in the reproductive parts than in the vegetative parts. Taken together these results suggest that the growth and reproduction of Laminariales sporophytes are regulated by internal auxin levels. Elucidating the regulation mechanism is likely to provide information that is important for the management of plant production and the assessment of the physiological status of plants in the field.

Key words

Laminaria Undaria Alaria sorus formation growth auxin IAA-oxidase activity 


  1. Abe H, Uchiyama MR, Sato R (1972) Isolation and identification of native auxins in marine algae. Agric. Biol. Chem. 36: 2259–2260.Google Scholar
  2. Abe H, Uchiyama M, Sato R (1974) Isolation of phenylacetic acid and its p-hydroxy derivative as auxin-like substances from Undaria pinnatifida. Agric. Biol. Chem. 38: 897–898.Google Scholar
  3. Akiyama K (1977) Preliminary report on Streblonema disease in Undaria. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 37: 39–41.Google Scholar
  4. Aruga Y, Toyoshima M, Yokohama Y (1990) Comparative photosynthetic studies of Ecklonia cava bladelets with and without zoosporangial sori. Jpn. J. Phycol. 38: 223–228.Google Scholar
  5. Aruga Y, Kurashima A, Yokohama Y (1997) Formation of zoosporangial sori and photosynthetic activity in Ecklonia cava Kjellman. J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 83: 103–128.Google Scholar
  6. Bartel B (1997) Auxin biosynthesis. Ann Rev. Plant. Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 48: 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartel B, LeClere S, Magidin M, Zolman BK (2001) Inputs to the active indole-3-acetic acid pool: De novo synthesis, conjugate hydrolysis, and indole-3-Butric acid-ß-oxidation. J. Plant Growth Regul. 20: 198–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Basu S, Sun H, Brian L, Quatroano RL, Muday GK (2002) Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive. Plant Physiol. 130: 292–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentley JA (1960) Plant hormones in marine phytoplankton, zooplankton and seawater. J. Mar. Biol. Ass, U.K. 39: 433–444.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley PM (1991) Plant hormones do have a role in controlling growth and development of algae. J. Phycol. 27: 317–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchholz C, Lüning K (1999) Isolated, distal blade discs of the brown alga Laminaria digitata form sorus, but not discs, near to the meristematic transition zone. J. Appl. Phycol. 16: 579–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson FF (1950) The effects of auxins on the growth of marine algae. Am. J. Bot. 37: 502–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeBoer JA, Guigli HJ, Israel TL (1978) Nutritional studies of two red algae. I. Growth rate as a function of nitrogen source and concentration. J. Phycol. 14: 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fei X (2004) Solving the coastal eutrophication problem by large scale seaweed cultivation. Hydrobiologia 512: 145–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fries L (1977) Axenic tissue cultures from the sporophytes of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyta). J. Phycol. 16: 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon SA, Weber RP (1951) Colorimetric estimation of indoleacetic acid. Plant. Physiol. 26: 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gortner WA, Kent MJ (1953) Indoleacetic acid oxidase and inhibitor in pineapple tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 213: 593–603.Google Scholar
  18. Gortner WA, Kent MJ (1958) The coenzyme requirement and enzyme inhibitors of pineapple indoleacetic acid oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 233: 731–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kain JM (1975) The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. VIII. Reproduction of the sporophyte. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 55: 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kain JM, Dawes CP (1987) Useful European seaweeds: past hopes present cultivation. Hydrobiologia 151/152: 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ishikawa Y, Saga N (1989) The diseases of economically valuable seaweeds and pathology in Japan. In Miyachi S, Karube I, Ishida Y (eds) “Current Topics in Marine Biotechnology,” Fuji Technology Press Ltd, Tokyo, pp. 215–218.Google Scholar
  22. Kawashima S (1984) Kombu cultivation in Japan for human foodstuff. Jpn. J. Phycol. 32: 379–394.Google Scholar
  23. Kazama H, Katsumi M (1973) Auxin-gibberellin relationships in their effects on hypocotyls elongation of light-grown cucumber seedlings. Presponses of sections to auxin, gibberellin and sucrose. Plant Cell Physiol. 14: 449–458.Google Scholar
  24. Lawlor HJ, McComb JA, Borowitzka MA (1988) The development of filamentous and callus-like growth in axenic tissue cultures of Ecklonia radiata (Phaeophyta). In Stadler T, Mollion J, Verdis MC, Karamanos Y, Horvan H, Christiaen D (eds), “Algal Biotechnology,” Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 139– 150.Google Scholar
  25. Lüning K, Wagner A, Buchholz C (2000) Evidence for inhibitors of sporangium formation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) during the season of rapid growth. J. Phycol. 36: 1129–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maruyama A, Maeda M, Shimizu U (1989) Microbial production of auxin indole-3-acetic acid in marine sediments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 58: 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Markhan JW (1973) Observation on the ecology of Laminaria sinclairii on three northern Oregon beaches. J. Phycol. 9: 336–341.Google Scholar
  28. Mazur H, Homme E (1993) Presence of auxin indole-3-acetic acid in the northern Adriatic sea: phytohormones and mucilage. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 99: 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mizuta H, Hayasaki J, Yamamoto H (1998) Relationship between nitrogen content and sorus formation in the brown alga Laminaria japonica cultivated in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Fish. Sci. 64: 909–913.Google Scholar
  30. Mowat JA (1964) Auxins and gibberellins in marine algae. 4th Int. Seaweed Symp. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 349–356.Google Scholar
  31. Nimura K, Mizuta H (2001) Differences in photosynthesis and nucleic acid content between sterile andfertile parts of the sporophyte of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae). Algae 16: 151–155.Google Scholar
  32. Nimura K, Mizuta H (2002) Inducible effects of abscisic acid on sporophyte discs from Laminaria japonica Areschoug. J. Appl. Phycol. 14: 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nimura K, Mizuta H, Yamamoto H (2002) Critical contents of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sorus formation in four Laminaria species. Bot. Mar. 45: 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Normanly J (1997) Auxin metabolism. Physiol. Plant 100: 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ohno M (1987) Wakame. In Tokuda H (ed), The Resources and Cultivation of Seaweeds. Midori-Shobo, pp. 133–144. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Parke M (1948) Studies on British Laminariaceae. I. Growth in Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 27: 651–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Provasoli L (1968) Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae. Culture and collections of algae. Proc. U.S. – Japan Conf. Hakone, September 1966: 63–75.Google Scholar
  38. Sakanishi Y, Yokohama Y, Aruga Y (1991) Photosynthetic capacity of various parts of the blade of Laminaria longissima Miyabe (Phaeophyta). Jpn. J. Phycol. 39: 239–247.Google Scholar
  39. Sondheimer E, Griffin DH (1959) Activation and inhibition of indoleacetic acid oxidase activity from peas. Science 131: 672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stirk WA, Arthur GD, Lourens AF, Novak O, Strnad M, van Staden J (2004) Changes in cytokinin and auxin concentrations in seaweed concentrates when stored at an elevated temperature. J. Appl. Phycol. 16: 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. van Overbeek (1940) Auxin in marine algae. Plant Physiol. 15: 291–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yan ZM (1984) Studies on tissue culture of Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 314–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zemke-White WL, Ohno M (1999) World seaweed utilization: An end-of-century summary. J. Appl. Phycol. 11: 379–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoki Kai
    • 1
  • Kazumi Nimura
    • 1
  • Hajime Yasui
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Mizuta
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquaculture Genetics and Genomics, Graduate School of Fisheries ScienceHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Aquaculture Genetics and Genomics, Faculty of Fisheries SciencesHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan

Personalised recommendations