Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 457–468 | Cite as

Numerical models for management of Anabaena circinalis

  • David M. Lewis
  • Justin D. Brookes
  • Martin F. Lambert


The control of nuisance species of cyanobacteria in reservoirs is a critical issue for the international water industry, as these organisms can produce toxins and compounds that taint potable water with unpleasant tastes and odours. To assist with effective management of cyanobacterial growth, numerical models that are either site specific or universally applicable can be employed. An artificially destratified reservoir was modelled with the coupled hydrodynamic-ecological numerical model DYRESM-CAEDYM. The validation site was Myponga Reservoir, South Australia, a highly managed drinking water supply reservoir. Chemical dosing (CuSO4) and artificial mixing via an aerator and two raft-mounted mechanical surface mixers (hereafter referred to as surface mixers) are used at Myponga to manage the growth of the scum-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis. The dominant phytoplankton community was adequately modelled, and combinations of the various management options were simulated whereupon informed operational strategies could be implemented. Without any intervention, permanent stratification would occur and the growth of Anabaena circinalis would peak above 3 μ g L−1, producing geosmin that would exceed the taste and odour threshold (10 ng L−1); with the individual use of the aerator or surface mixers, growth of Anabaena circinalis was significantly reduced to below 1 μ g L−1.

Key Words

aerator Anabaena circinalis artificial destratification CuSO4 dosing DYRESM-CAEDYM Myponga Reservoir numerical simulation surface mixers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bierman VJ, Dolan DM (1981) Modelling of phytoplankton –Nutrient dynamics in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. J. Great Lakes Res. 7: 409–439.Google Scholar
  2. Brookes JD, Ganf GG, Green D, Whittington J (1999) The influence of light and nutrients on buoyancy, filament aggregation and floatation of Anabaena circinalis. J. Plankton Res. 21: 327–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burch MD, Velzeboer RMA, Chow CWK, Stevens HC, Bee CM, House J (1998) Evaluation of copper algicides for the control of algae and Anabaena circinalis. Urban Water Research Association of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, p. 130.Google Scholar
  4. Chorus I, Bartram J (eds) (1999) Toxic Anabaena circinalis in water. E & FN Spoon, pp. 416.Google Scholar
  5. Griffin SL, Herzfeld M, Hamilton DP (2001) Modelling the impact of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton biomass during a dinoflagellate bloom in the Swan River Estuary, Western Australia. Ecol. Eng. 16: 373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamilton DP (1999) Numerical modelling and reservoir management: Applications of the DYRESM model. In Tundisi JG Straskraba M (eds), Theoretical Reservoir Ecology and Its Applications, International Institute of Ecology, Brazilian Academy of Sciences and Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 153–173.Google Scholar
  7. Hamilton DP, Schladow SG (1997) Prediction of water quality in lakes and reservoirs, Part 1 –Model description. Ecol. Mod. 96: 91–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Imberger J, Patterson JC (1981) A dynamic reservoir simulation model-DYRESM: 5. In Fischer HB (ed), Transport Models for Inland and Coastal Waters, Academic Press, New York, pp. 310–361.Google Scholar
  9. Ismail R, Kassim MA, Inman M, Baharim NH, Azman S (2002) Removal of iron and manganese by artificial destratification in a tropical climate (Upper Layang Reservoir, Malaysia). Water Sci. Tech. 46: 179–183.Google Scholar
  10. Jones GJ (1997) Limnological study of cyanobacterial dominance in three South-East Queensland reservoirs. In Davis RRD (ed), Managing Algal Blooms: Outcomes from the CSIRO Blue-Green Algal Research Program. CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Australia, pp. 51–66.Google Scholar
  11. Kirk JTO (1994) Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 509.Google Scholar
  12. Lewis DM, Antenucci JP, Brookes JD, Lambert MF (2001) Numerical simulation of surface mixers used for destratification of reservoirs. In Ghassemi F, Post D, Sivapalan M, Vertessy R (eds), International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, MODSIM, Canberra, Australia, pp. 311–317.Google Scholar
  13. Lewis DM, Antenucci JP, Brookes JD, Lambert MF (2002) Surface mixing for destratification: Simulating the impact. Water 29: 27–29.Google Scholar
  14. Reynolds CS (1984). The Ecology of Freshwater Phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 384 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Reynolds CS (1997) The pelagic environment. In Kinne O (ed), Vegetation Processes in the Pelagic: A Model for Ecosystem Theory. Excellence in Ecology. Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, pp. 21–70.Google Scholar
  16. Reynolds CS, Irish AE, Elliott JA (2001) The ecological basis for simulating phytoplankton responses to environmental change. Ecol. Mod. 140: 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reynolds CS, Wiseman SW, Clarke MJO (1984) Growth and loss-rate responses of phytoplankton to intermittent artificial mixing and their potential application to the control of planktonic algal biomass. J. Appl. Ecol. 21: 11–39.Google Scholar
  18. Riley MJ, Stefan HG (1987) Dynamic lake water quality simulation model “MINLAKE”, Report 263, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 140 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Schladow SG, Hamilton DP (1997) Prediction of water quality in lakes and reservoirs, Part II –Model calibration, sensitivity analysis and application. Ecol. Mod. 96: 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Westwood K, Ganf GG (2004) Effect of mixing patterns and light dose on growth of Anabaena circinalis in a turbid lowland river. Riv. Man. Appl. 20: 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Whitaker J, Barica J, Kling H, Buckley M (1978) Efficacy of copper sulphate in the suppression of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae blooms in prairie lakes. Env. Poll. 15: 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Lewis
    • 1
  • Justin D. Brookes
    • 2
  • Martin F. Lambert
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaide
  2. 2.Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment
  3. 3.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe University of Adelaide

Personalised recommendations