One Health, Vaccines and Ebola: The Opportunities for Shared Benefits
- 638 Downloads
The 2013 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, as of writing, is declining in reported human cases and mortalities. The resulting devastation caused highlights how health systems, in particular in West Africa, and in terms of global pandemic planning, are ill prepared to react to zoonotic pathogens. In this paper we propose One Health as a strategy to prevent zoonotic outbreaks as a shared goal: that human and Great Ape vaccine trials could benefit both species. Only recently have two phase 2/3 Ebola human vaccine trials been started in West Africa. This paper argues for a conceptual change in pandemic preparedness. We first discuss the ethics of One Health. Next, we focus on the current Ebola outbreak and defines its victims. Third, we present the notion of a ‘shared benefit’ approach, grounded in One Health, and argue for the vaccination of wild apes in order to protect both apes and humans. We believe that a creation of such inter-species immunity is an exemplar of One Health, and that it is worth pursuing as a coextensive public health approach.
KeywordsEbola virus One Health Zoonoses Vaccine Immunity Shared benefit
Capps conceived of the idea for this article and led its drafting. Lederman was integral to developing the idea and contributed equally to the research for the paper. The authors would like to thank the following people for helpful comments: Wang Linfa, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, and Sharon Amit.
Capps is an international advisor to the project: One Health, Zoonotic Diseases and Pandemic Planning: Creating a Bioethics Framework in Singapore; MOH/CDPHRG/0011/2014; Communicable Diseases Public Health Research Fund, Ministry of Health Singapore.
- Allouche, J. (2015). Ebola and extractive industry, IDS practice paper in brief 21. Brighton: Institute of Developmental Studies.Google Scholar
- American Anthropological Society (AAA). (2014). Strengthening West African health care systems to stop Ebola: Anthropologists offer insights. Prepared November 18, 2014. Arlington, Virginia: AAA.Google Scholar
- Associated Press. (2014, October 9). Excalibur, Spanish Ebola patient’s dog, is euthanised despite global outcry. The Guardian.Google Scholar
- Chan, M. (2014). WHO Director-General addresses the Regional Committee for Africa; Director-General of the World Health Organization; Address to the Regional Committee for Africa, Sixty-fourth Session; Cotonou, Republic of Benin; 3 November 2014.Google Scholar
- Conniff, R. (2014). Useless creatures. New York Times, September 14: SR8.Google Scholar
- Escudero-Perez, B., Volchkova, V., Dolnik, O., et al. (2014). Shed GP of Ebola virus triggers immune activation and increased vascular permeability. PLoS ONE, 10, e1004509.Google Scholar
- Farmer, P. (2014). Diary. London Review of Books, 36, 38–39.Google Scholar
- Fjeldsæter, A. (2014, July 17). Ebola in Sierra Leone: Battling sadness, fear and disgust on the frontline. The Guardian.Google Scholar
- Garrett, L. (1995). The coming plague: Newly emerging diseases in a world out of balance. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Hayden, E. (2015). Biobank planned for Ebola samples. Nature, 524, 147.Google Scholar
- Kahn, L. H., Kaplan, B., & Steele, J. H. (2007). Confronting zoonosis through closer collaboration between medicine and veterinary medicine (as ‘One Medicine’). Veterinaria Italiana, 43, 5–19.Google Scholar
- Kahn, S., Geale, D., Kitching, P., et al. (2002). Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: The implications for Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43, 349–354.Google Scholar
- Looi, L., & Chua, K. (2007). Lessons from the Nipah virus outbreak. Journal of Pathology, 29, 63–67.Google Scholar
- Mark, M. (2014, July 3). Fear and ignorance as Ebola ‘Out of Control’ in parts of West Africa. The Guardian.Google Scholar
- Morse, S. (2009). Emerging infections: Condemned to repeat? In Microbial evolution and co-adaptation: A tribute to the life and scientific legacies of Joshua Lederberg: Workshop summary. Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. Washington (DC): National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Neyland, D. (2013). An Ethnography of Numbers. In D. Caulkins & T. Jordan (Eds.), A companion to organizational anthropology (1st ed., pp. 219–235). London: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
- Potter, V. R. (1988). Global bioethics. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
- Quammen, D. (2015). The chimp and the river: How AIDS emerged from an African forest. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
- Scoones, I. (2010). Towards a One World, One Health approach. In I. Scoone (Ed.), Avian influenza: Science, policy and politics. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Stanley, D., Honko, A., Asiedu, C., et al. (2014). Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine generates acute and durable protective immunity against Ebolavirus challenge. Nature Medicine, 20, 1126–1129.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2014). Ebola situation in Liberia: non-conventional interventions needed. Ebola situation assessment 8 September. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/ebola/8-september-2014/en/.
- WHO. (2015). Second WHO high-level meeting on Ebola vaccines access and financing. Summary report. WHO/EVD/Meet/HIS/15.1.Google Scholar