Adult Attachment and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Personality
- 40 Downloads
The main aim of the current study was to identify the links between attachment and psychological well-being (PWB) and analyze the personality characteristics that mediated these relationships. The sample was made up of 1403 adults (mean age 37.2 years). The results indicated positive correlations between secure attachment and PWB dimensions, whereas avoidant and anxious attachment were negatively associated with PWB. Significant relationships were found between attachment orientations and different Big Five personality traits, particularly neuroticism. Self-esteem also showed strong links with attachment orientations. Dominance analyses demonstrated that certain personality traits—neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and self-esteem—had a greater relative importance than attachment orientations for different PWB dimensions. The greatest contribution of attachment was to positive relations with others. The results of mediation analyses showed direct effects of attachment orientations on PWB dimensions, as well as indirect effects through personality characteristics. Self-esteem was an important mediator in all relationships between attachment and PWB. These findings could have significant practical implications in promoting well-being.
KeywordsPersonality Optimism Self-esteem Attachment orientations Psychological well-being
- Abbott, R. A., Ploubidis, G. B., Huppert, F. A., Kuh, D., Wadsworth, M. E., & Croudace, T. J. (2006). Psychometric evaluation and predictive validity of Ryff’s psychological well-being items in a UK birth cohort sample of women. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-4-76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation: Anxiety, and anger (Vol. 19). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Caldwell, J. G., & Shaver, P. R. (2012). Exploring the cognitive-emotional pathways between adult attachment and ego-resiliency. Individual Differences Research, 10, 141–152.Google Scholar
- Chen, W., Zhang, D., Pan, Y., Hu, T., Liu, G., & Luo, S. (2017). Perceived social support and self-esteem as mediators of the relationship between parental attachment and life satisfaction among Chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 98–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cordero, A., Pamos, A., & Seisdedos, N. (1999). Inventario de Personalidad NEO Revisado (NEO PI-R) e Inventario NEO Reducido de Cinco Factores (NEO-FFI). Manual profesional. Madrid: TEA Ediciones, S.A.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Fraley, R. C., & Waller, N. G. (1998). Adult attachment patterns: A test of the typological model. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 77–114). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Fransson, M., Granqvist, P., Bohlin, G., & Hagekull, B. (2013). Interlinkages between attachment and the Five-Factor Model of personality in middle childhood and young adulthood: A longitudinal approach. Attachment & Human Development, 15, 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2013.754985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Galinha, I. C., Oishi, S., Pereira, C. R., Wirtz, D., & Esteves, F. (2014). Adult attachment, love styles, relationship experiences and subjective well-being: Cross-cultural and gender comparison between Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans. Social Indicators Research, 119, 823–852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0512-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heinonen, K., Raikkonen, K., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Strandberg, T. (2004). Adult attachment dimensions and recollections of childhood family context: Associations with dispositional optimism and pessimism. European Journal of Personality, 18, 193–207. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hernández, J. A. (2016). ULLRToolbox. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/ullrtoolbox/.
- Kerr, S. L., Melley, A. M., Travea, L., & Pole, M. (2003). The relationship of emotional expression and experience to adult attachment style. Individual Differences Research, 1, 108–123. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sandra_Kerr2/publication/283515895_The_relationship_of_emotional_expression_and_experience_to_adult_attachment_style/links/563cf72c08aec6f17dd7e5d7/The-relationship-of-emotional-expression-and-experience-to-adult-attachment-style.pdf.
- La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.79.3367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lindeman, R. H., Merenda, P. F., & Gold, R. Z. (1980). Introduction to Bivariate and Multivariate Analysis. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
- Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Osborne, G., & Hurling, R. (2009). Measuring happiness: The higher order factor structure of subjective and psychological well-being measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 878–884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marrero, R. J., & Carballeira, M. (2012). The contribution of personality to psychological well-being: An exploratory study. In B. S. Nguyem (Ed.), Psychology of satisfaction (pp. 41–65). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Molero, F., Shaver, P., Fernández, I., & Recio, P. (2017). Attachment insecurities, life satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction from a dyadic perspective: The role of positive and negative affect. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 337–347. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nathans, L. L., Oswald, F. L., & Nimon, K. (2012). Interpreting multiple linear regression: A guidebook of variable importance. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 17, 2–19. http://hdl.handle.net/1911/71096.
- Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling and more Version 0.5-12 (BETA). Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–36. Retrieved from http://users.ugent.be/~yrosseel/lavaan/lavaanIntroduction.pdf.
- Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from Neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Slade, A. (2008). The implications of attachment theory and research for adult psychotherapy: Research and clinical perspectives. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (Vol. 19, pp. 762–782). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Turiano, N. A., Pitzer, L., Armour, C., Karlamangla, A., Ryff, C. D., & Mroczek, D. K. (2012). Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: Findings from a national study of Americans (MIDUS). The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 4–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wei, M., Heppner, P. P., Russell, D. W., & Young, S. K. (2006). Maladaptive perfectionism and ineffective coping as mediators between attachment and future depression: A prospective analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar